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5th September 2023

Understanding Laïcité, the French principle of secularism


Recently, the French government announced that the practice of wearing abaya would be banned in state-run schools as it violated the principle of Laïcité, which is the French idea of secularism. 

What is the meaning of Laïcité?

  • Coined in the 19th century, Laïcité is a complicated and politically charged term. It is understood as a formal separation of the State and Church.
  • It involves the complete removal of religious values from the public sphere and their replacement with secular values such as liberty, equality, and fraternity.
  • Underlying goal: to implant tolerance and assimilate people.
  • As per the principle, religion is to be confined to the private sphere. It is important to note here that the state plays an important role in ensuring that affairs are run according to the principle of Laïcité.


Laïcité, a product of the struggle of anti-clerical Republicans against the power of the Catholic Church, was an abstract idea following the French Revolution in 1789.

How Secularism is managed in a nation of 1.25 billion people?

  • Like the French, Indians tend to consider secularism as part of their national identity. 
  • But while the foundation of French laïcité is to keep the government neutral in religious affairs, the Indian version of secularism “allows state intervention in the dominant religion”— and recognizes minority rights.

Secularism in India vs. the Western World: A Comparative Exploration

  • Secularism, a crucial component of contemporary governance, takes on distinct forms in India compared to Western nations.


Western Secularism

Indian Secularism


  • In Western countries, secularism primarily revolves around the Enlightenment principles, advocating for a strict separation between religious institutions and state affairs. The primary aim is to maintain religious neutrality in government functions.
  • India's brand of secularism is characterized by an inclusive approach that accommodates religious diversity. It is rooted in the idea of respecting and safeguarding the right to religious freedom for all citizens.


  • The Western concept of secularism is based on the ideas of Thomas Jefferson.
  • The Constituent Assembly emphasized the secular foundation of India. 

Historical Evolution

  • Western secularism traces its roots to the Enlightenment era, marked by the emancipation from religious dogma and the eventual disestablishment of state religions.
  • India's journey is closely tied to its struggle for independence and the subsequent framing of its constitution.


Legal Framework

  • Western countries often codify secularism within their constitutions and legal systems.
  • These legal provisions enshrine the separation of church and state and protect the freedom of religion for all citizens.
  • India's Constitution embodies its approach to secularism by guaranteeing equal protection of religious freedom and prohibiting discrimination based on religion.
  • The Indian Constitution has spelled out several provisions in Part III (Articles 14, 15, 16, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30), Part IV (Article 44), and IVA (clause (e)) that reflects the existence of secularism.

Disasters put focus on cities’ ‘carrying capacity’


The Centre proposed before the Supreme Court forming a 13-member technical committee to evaluate the “carrying capacity” of 13 Himalayan States.

What is the need?

  • Frequent landslips leading to deaths and destruction had led the Supreme Court to moot a re-evaluation of the load-carrying capacity of hill towns and cities.
  • Significantly, these states have faced flash floods, landslides, and acute water shortages in the past, especially in popular tourist destinations. 
  • In March 2021, the National Green Tribunal had directed all state governments to undertake carrying capacity studies of ecologically sensitive areas.

What is carrying capacity?

  • The carrying capacity of an area can be defined as the “maximum number of population that can be supported by the environment of that area through optimum utilisation of the available resources”. 
  • Factors Influencing Carrying Capacity:
    • Terrain
    • Water availability
    • Waste management
    • Resilience of local communities

Are hill stations not prepared?

  • Master plans for most Indian cities — including hill stations —are not prepared based on their carrying capacity.
    • Master plan finds mention in the Urban and Regional Development Plans Formulation and Implementation (URDPFI) guidelines notified by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in 2015.
  • It should be an integral part of city and town planning, especially in hill states.  

Why carrying capacity is out of focus?

Although carrying capacity has been taught in planning schools, it has rarely been used by urban planners while planning for cities’ development. It is due to:

  • Economic Imperatives: Tourism generates substantial revenue for these regions, making policymakers hesitant to limit tourist numbers or impose stringent regulations.
  • Lack of Planning: Hill stations often lack comprehensive development plans that consider environmental sustainability and carrying capacity. This lack of foresight exacerbates the problem.
  • Lack of manpower: There is an acute shortage of experienced urban planners in the states.
  • Political Considerations: Political interests and pressure from the tourism industry can sideline discussions about carrying capacity and environmental concerns.

Toyota’s flex-fuel prototype


Toyota recently unveiled a prototype of the Innova Hycross with a flex-fuel hybrid powertrain, its first car in India with this option, and one that the Japanese carmaker claims is the world’s first BS6 Stage II-compliant flex-fuel vehicle.

What is flex fuel technology?

  • A flex fuel, or flexible fuel, vehicle has an internal combustion engine (ICE), but unlike a regular petrol or diesel vehicle, this can run on more than one type of fuel, or even a mixture of fuels.
  • The most common versions use a blend of petrol and ethanol or methanol, but these engines are also equipped to run on 100 per cent petrol or ethanol as well.
  • This is made possible by equipping the engine with a fuel mix sensor and an engine control module (ECM) programming that senses and automatically adjusts for any ratio of designated fuels.
  • It was first developed in the early 1990sand used in the mass-produced 1994 Ford Taurus, according to Car Bibles. By 2017, there were approximately 21 million flex-fuel vehicles on the road.

Hycross prototype

  • The Hycross flex-fuel prototype has a 2-litre Atkinson Cycle petrol engine coupled with an electric motor, the same as in the hybrid version of the standard Hycross.
  • The prototype can run on petrol with more than 20% ethanol blending that is currently mandated in India, and that its performance would be at par with the standard Hycross hybrid, even with ethanol-blended petrol.

Key Components of a Flex Fuel Car

  • Battery: The battery provides electricity to start the engine and power vehicle electronics/accessories.
  • Electronic control module (ECM): The ECM controls the fuel mixture, ignition timing, and emissions system; monitors the operation of the vehicle; safeguards the engine from abuse; and detects and troubleshoots problems.
  • Exhaust system: The exhaust system channels the exhaust gases from the engine out through the tailpipe. A three-way catalyst is designed to reduce engine-out emissions within the exhaust system.
  • Fuel filler: A nozzle from a fuel dispenser attaches to the receptacle on the vehicle to fill the tank.
  • Fuel injection system: This system introduces fuel into the engine's combustion chambers for ignition.
  • Fuel line: A metal tube or flexible hose (or a combination of these) transfers fuel from the tank to the engine's fuel injection system.
  • Fuel pump: A pump that transfers fuel from the tank to the engine's fuel injection system via the fuel line.
  • Fuel tank (ethanol/gasoline blend): Stores fuel on board the vehicle to power the engine.
  • Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited): In this configuration, fuel is injected into either the intake manifold or the combustion chamber, where it is combined with air, and the air/fuel mixture is ignited by the spark from a spark plug.
  • Transmission: The transmission transfers mechanical power from the engine and/or electric traction motor to drive the wheels.

 How flex fuel cars work?

  • Flex fuel vehicles have one fuel system, and most components are the same as those found in a conventional petrol-only car.
  • Some special ethanol-compatible components are required to adjust to the different chemical properties and energy content in ethanol or methanol, such as modifications to the fuel pump and fuel injection system.
  • The ECM is also calibrated to accommodate the higher oxygen content of ethanol.


Advantages of Flex-Fuel

Disadvantages of Flex-Fuel

  • Cleaner Fuel
  • Flexible Usage
  • Sustainable Source
  • Provides similar, and sometimes better, performance than pure petrol cars


  • Nationwide Adoption: The greatest barrier to flex-fuel adoption is the infrastructure investment required to make the switch.
  • Increased Engine Wear: While the engines will be designed to adjust to the blend of fuel used, the ethanol component in the flex-fuel will cause greater wear and stress on the engines. This might translate to higher maintenance costs during the time the technology matures and improves reliability.
  • Lower Mileage: While ethanol burns cleaner, it also contains less energy than pure petrol.

Invasive species threaten world’s diversity


Invasive species are costing the world at least $423bn every year and have become a leading threat to the diversity of life on Earth, according to a UN assessment.

About the Report
  • The assessment, produced by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), was produced over four and a half years.
  • The findings follow a 2019 reportthat warned 1m species were at risk of going extinct, threatened by pollution, climate change, invasive species, the direct exploitation of organisms, and land-use change.
    • Invasive species have contributed to 40% of all known animal extinctions.

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)

  • Established in: 2012
  • IPBES is the leading UN body on biodiversity science
  • It is an international organization committed to strengthening the role of science in public decision-making on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Key-highlights of the Report

  • Invasive alien species are a major threat to biodiversity and can cause irreversible damage to nature, including local and global species extinctions, and also threaten human wellbeing.
  • Top species: The top three invasive species include
    • Water hyacinth, an aquatic plant native to tropical South America that blocks waterways and damages fisheries, the flowering shrub lantana, and the black rat
    • Aedes albopictus(spread West Nile virus)
    • Aedes aegypti (spread Zika virus)
  • Dominant areas: Most invasive species reports were noted in the Americas with 34% of all reports, followed by Europe and Central Asia (31%), the Asia Pacific (25%) and Africa (7%).

What is invasive species?

  • An invasive species is an organism that is not indigenous, or native, to a particular area.
  • Pathways:An invasive species can be introduced to a new area via the ballast water of oceangoing ships, intentional and accidental releases of aquaculture species, aquarium specimens or bait, and other means.
  • Not all non-native species are invasive.
    • For example,most of the food crops grown in the United States, including popular varieties of wheat, tomatoes, and rice, are not native to the region.
  • Features:To be invasive, a species must 
    • It must adapt to the new area easily.
    • It must reproduce quickly.
    • It must harm property, the economy, or the native plants and animals of the region.

List of invasive flora and fauna in India


State / Region

Native to

African apple snail

Andaman and Nicobar

Papaya Mealy Bug


Mexico and Central America,

Cotton Mealy Bug


North America

Amazon sailfin catfish

West Bengal

Black Wattle

Western Ghats

South East Australia

Water Hyacinth

It is found throughout India

Tropical America

Black Mimosa

Himalaya, Western Ghats

Tropical North America

Parthenium/ Congress grass, Parthenium

It is found throughout India

Tropical North America

Cannibal Snail / Rosy wolf snail

Native to the southeastern United States.

Indian Bullfrog

Andaman and Nicobar

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan

Lantana camara

In the Bandipur National Park, Karnataka

South America

Additional examples:

  • Cogongrass is an Asian plant that arrived in the United States as seeds in packing material.
  • Feral pigs will eat almost anything, including native birds. They compete with native wildlife for food sources such as acorns.
    • Feral pigs spread diseases, such as brucellosis, to people and livestock. E. coli from their feces was implicated in the E. coli contamination of baby spinach in 2006.
  • European green crabs found their way into the San Francisco Bay area in 1989. They out-compete native species for food and habitat and eat huge quantities of native shellfish, threatening commercial fisheries.
  • Dutch elm disease (caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) is transmitted to trees by elm bark beetles. Since 1930, the disease has spread from Ohio through most of the country, killing over half of the elm trees in the northern United States.
  • Emerald ash borer beetles: Emerald ash borer beetles are invasive insects first discovered in Michigan in 2002 and most likely brought over on packing material from East Asia.

'Atlantification' of the Arctic Ocean


In a recent study published in the journal Science, an international team of scientists has shed new light on the “Atlantification” of the Arctic Ocean. This phenomenon explains the trend in Arctic Ocean sea ice loss that seems to have plateaued since 2007.

Key-highlights of the Study

Arctic Dipole

  • The Arctic dipole, also known as the Dipole Anomaly, is a relatively recent climate pattern characterized by atmospheric pressure variations in the Arctic region. 
  • It has garnered increased attention due to its pronounced impact on the sea ice extent and its potential linkage with mid-latitude weather patterns. 
  • The study delves into the multifaceted influence of the Arctic dipole on the Arctic Ocean climate.
  • The researchers discovered that the Arctic dipole follows an approximately 15-year cycle. They surmise that we’re nearing the end of the present regime.
  • When broken down, the current “positive” regime of the Arctic dipole, which has persisted since 2007, is characterized by high pressure centered over the Canadian sector of the Arctic producing clockwise winds, and low pressure over the Siberian Arctic, with counterclockwise winds. 
  • This specific wind configuration affects upper ocean currents and has a wide-ranging influence, from air temperatures to sea-ice drift, heat exchanges, and even ecological implications.
  • Switchgear mechanism: The research also unveils a “switchgear mechanism” responsible for the alternating changes in the Fram Strait and the Barents Sea. These alterations, triggered by the Arctic dipole mechanisms, have profound effects. 
  • An influx of warmer Atlantic water to the Arctic is changing the makeup of this ocean stratification. 
  • Driven by climate change, the Arctic Ocean is seeing
    • sea ice reductions
    • weakening of the halocline
    • reduction in the depth of the Atlantic warm waters
    • Atlantic water is having an increasing influence on the Arctic Ocean

Major Layers of the Arctic Ocean

  • The Arctic Ocean is formed of numerous water layers that remain in place due to the differences in salt concentration, which affect the buoyancy of the water.
    • Top Layer: The top layer is freshwater with a low salinity, held at near freezing point, which comes from the melting of sea ice and from Arctic rivers that release into the ocean.
    • Layer of Salt: Beneath this layer comes a layer of saltier and warmer water from the Atlantic.
    • Arctic halocline: In between these two layers, there is an intermediate layer known as the Arctic halocline where the warm, salty water mixes with the cold, fresh surface layer above.
    • Arctic deep water: Beyond the warm and salty Atlantic layer, there is another water mass of cold and slightly saltier water, known as Arctic deep water.

What factor is responsible for maintaining the layered structure?

  • Thermohaline circulation, also known as the "Great Ocean Conveyor Belt," is a key factor in maintaining the layered structure of the Arctic Ocean.
  • It involves the movement of ocean water based on differences in temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline).
  • In the Arctic Ocean, cold and dense water sinks beneath warmer and less dense water, creating a layered structure that helps in retaining the various water layers in place.

Short News Article

Polity & Governance (GS-II)

Deemed University

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has been bestowed with the status of a deemed-to-be university.

What is a deemed university?

  • A deemed university is recognised under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.
  • The Centre can on the recommendation of the University Grants Commission declare an institute of higher learning (other than universities) as a ‘Deemed-to-be-university’.
  • The tag allows such institutes that work at an extremely high level in a specific area – the same academic status and privileges as a university.


  • NCERT was founded in 1961 under the Society Act.
  • The organisation advises the Centre on education.

Polity & Governance (GS-II)

Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)

The PMJDY has completed nine years recently.


  • Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is a national mission for financial inclusion to ensure access to financial services, namely, banking/ savings and deposit accounts, remittance, credit, insurance, pension in an affordable manner.
  • Account can be opened in any bank branch or business correspondent (Bank Mitr) outlet.
  • PMJDY accounts are being opened with zero balance.
  • All citizens of Indian nationality are eligible.

Progress so far

  • More than 50 crore people have been brought into the formal banking system through the opening of Jan Dhan Accounts.
    • Among these accounts, approximately 55.5% belong to women, and 67% have been opened in rural / semi-urban areas.
  • The cumulative deposits in these accounts has surpassed Rs.2 lakh crore. 

Polity & Governance (GS-II)

Gramodyog Vikas Yojana (GVY)

The Chairman of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), recently, distributed toolkits and machinery to artisans in Bhubaneshwar, Odisha, as part of the Gramodyog Vikas Yojana.

About Gramodyog Vikas Yojana:

  • Launched in: 2020
  • Gramodyog VikasYojana (GVY) scheme is for promotion and development of village industries through common facilities, technological modernization, training etc. & other support and services for promotion of village Industries.
  • It is one of the two components of theKhadi Gramodyog Vikas Yojana which is a Central Sector Scheme (CSS).
  • GVY has the following components/ verticals from the activities under Village Industries:
    • Wellness & Cosmetics Industry (WCI)
    • Handmade Paper, Leather & Plastic Industry (HPLPI)
    • Agro Based & Food Processing Industry (ABFPI)
    • Mineral Based Industry (MBI)
    • Rural Engineering & New Technology Industry (RENTI)
    • Service Industry

About KVIC

  • The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body.
  • It functions under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. 
  • Objective: to promote Khadi and other micro to medium scale industries in the rural areas.

Economy (GS-III)

Agriculture Infrastructure Development cess (AIDC)

The finance ministry notifed that imports of LPG, liquified propane and liquified butane have been fully exempted from Agriculture Infrastructure Development cess (AIDC).

What is AIDC?

  • AIDC is a tax that the government of India levies on commercial agricultural production in the country.
  • The production capacity determines the charge rates.
  • The government of India uses the amount collected through the Agriculture Infrastructure and Development Cess for infrastructure building all over the country.

Cess is a kind of special-purpose tax which is levied over and above basic tax rates.

Science & Technology (GS-III)

IAF’s annual training exercise- Trishul

The annual training exercise, Trishul, of the Indian Air Force’s (IAF) Western Air Command (WAC) began. 


  • Organised by: IAF's Western Command
  • Aim: to test the combat capabilities of the force and assess various operational dimensions.
  • It is said to be one of the largest air exercises to be carried out by the Indian Air Force (IAF)in recent times.
  • The fighter jets to be part of the drills include Rafales, Su-30 MKIs, Jaguars, Mirage-2000s, MiG-29s and MiG-21 Bisons.

Environment (GS-III)

Stump-tailed macaque

The Delhi zoo now houses a new animal species – the stump-tailed macaque.

  • Scientific name: Macaca arctoides 
  • The stump-tailed macaque, also called the bear macaque, is a species of macaquenative to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
  • In India, it occurs south of the Brahmaputra River, in the northeastern part of the country.
    • Its range in India extends from Assamand Meghalaya to eastern Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.
  • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable


G20, a pathfinder


India's 2023 G20 presidency is a historic pivot in global governance, emphasizing the theme "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam" or "The world is one family." This presidency reflects India's efforts to revive, reform, and defend globalisation while prioritizing the concerns of the Global South.

Democratisation and Decentralisation of Global Economy:

  • Corrected focus: Under India's G20 leadership, there is a focus on the democratisation and decentralisation of the global economy.
  • Emerging threats: Recent geo-economic developments, such as protectionist policies in the United States and the European Union, threaten the interconnected futures of nations.
  • Finding solution: Correcting this shift away from the principles of globalisation, which should benefit the poor the most, is crucial for the developing world.

Reforming Global Finance and Fostering Inclusivity:

  • Sharpening aim: India's G20 presidency aims to reform global finance, as financial globalisation has stalled since the 2008 crisis.
  • Redirecting towards emerging economies: International finance remains centred on older geographies, neglecting emerging economies that will drive global growth. India's G20 presidency seeks to redirect capital towards these emerging economies, fostering equitable global development.
  • Inclusiveness: Additionally, India has transformed the G20 into a more inclusive platform, amplifying the voices of marginalized groups and broadening the scope of global governance discussions.

The Global South's Redefined Role:

  • Shift towards South: India's G20 presidency marks a historic shift in global governance towards the Global South.
  • Complete growth: It reclaims the term "Global South," emphasizing green growth, tech-first development, women-led progress, and inclusive growth.
  • Redefining: India's diplomacy, diverse scholar community, and warm hospitality have redefined the Global South as pathfinders for a greener, digital, and equitable future, challenging past reductionist narratives.
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Living in the age of moral dystopia


The current era is marked by moral decay, where leaders fail to uphold their pledges, majoritarianism thrives, and communal harmony is overshadowed by political divisions. A sense of justice, freedom, and humanism seems distant as societal values shift.

Erosion of Moral Values

  • Leaders' Pledge Failures: Moral values have eroded, and political leaders are not held accountable for their unfulfilled promises.
  • Dominance of Majoritarianism: Majoritarianism is prevalent in government actions, leading to divisions in society.
  • Shift from Communal Harmony to Individualism: The shared living ideal of communal harmony has given way to a more individualistic mindset, diminishing acts of communal goodwill.

Decline in Compassion and Justice

  • Criticism of Acts of Compassion: Acts of compassion like Yogita Bhayana helping a Muslim man face criticism in a polarized society.
  • Diminished Communal Harmony: Acts of communal goodwill are increasingly met with sarcasm and indifference.
  • Changing Value System: The value system has shifted, making communal harmony less cherished.

Normalization of Injustice

  • Public Humiliation of Women: Instances of public humiliation of women in Manipur and inaction regarding it.
  • Historical Injustices vs. Present-Day Issues: Historical injustices are more vehemently addressed than present-day issues.
  • Society's Propensity to Forget: Society tends to forget and move on, emboldening intolerant non-state actors to perpetrate violence.
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A ‘distraction’ ballon in the winds of federalism


The 'one nation one election' proposal by the Indian government is being criticized as deeply flawed and unfeasible. Arguments are being made that the government's reasons for pushing this proposal are fallacious and suggests that it is merely a distraction from other pressing issues.

Flawed Proposal and Fallacious Reasons

  • Critique: The 'one nation one election' proposal is deemed flawed and unworkable, serving as a distraction from other pressing issues.
  • Questioning the 'Permanent Campaign' Argument: The government's argument that India is in a 'permanent campaign' due to frequent elections is challenged. However, not all states have elections simultaneously, so it doesn't affect the entire nation at once.
  • National Parties' Prioritization: It questions the notion that national parties are under constant election pressure, emphasizing that if these parties choose to prioritize elections over governance, it's their issue, not the nation's.

Attack on Federalism and Misleading Arguments

  • Undermining India's Federalism: The proposal is criticized for attacking India's federalism, as it would take away the power of state Chief Ministers to recommend early elections.
  • Debunking the Simultaneous Elections Argument: The idea of reverting to simultaneous elections, as seen between 1951-52 and 1967, is debunked as a happenstance rather than a deliberate design, and it's argued that India's political diversity requires flexibility.
  • Cost-Saving Deception: Cost-saving is another argument put forth for the proposal, but the article counters this by stating that the savings are minimal, and the government could save more by cutting other expenditures.

Impractical and Ideological Divide

  • Practical Challenges and Constitutional Viability: The proposal is characterized as politically unfeasible, administratively unworkable, and constitutionally unviable.
  • Lack of Faith in India's Federal Democratic Structure: The government's pursuit of this idea is portrayed as a lack of faith in India's federal democratic structure, highlighting the ideological divide in Indian politics between a unified nation and diverse states.
  • Unitarism under the Guise of Efficiency: Such an approach seeks to impose unitarism under the guise of efficiency.
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Emerging countries need women-led climate action


Given the interconnection between gender equality and environmental goals, addressing both issues together can accelerate the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Disproportionate Impact on Women

  • Climate Change Consequences: Climate change has varying consequences based on location, socioeconomic status, and gender.
  • Productivity Loss and Vulnerability: An International Labour Organization study predicted a significant loss of working hours due to high temperatures, affecting productivity globally. It is to be noted that women are considered highly vulnerable and disproportionately affected by climate change.
  • Vulnerability of Women in Developing Countries: Women in low-income countries, especially those in rural areas, are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to their reliance on natural resources and labor-intensive work for their livelihoods. Poverty, among other variables, makes them more susceptible to climate change's effects.

Gender-Specific Challenges

  • Unequal Burden on Women: Women bear the unequal burden of obtaining basic necessities like clean water and fuel.
  • Vulnerable Occupations: Women in low-income countries are more likely to engage in climate-vulnerable occupations such as agriculture, where they are often underpaid and overworked. Despite being essential to food production, women own a minimal percentage of farmland.
  • Displacement and Gender-Specific Issues: When climate-related disasters occur, a majority of those displaced are women and girls. This displacement makes them vulnerable to prejudice, exploitation, gender-based violence, and limited access to essential services.

Empowering Women for Climate Resilience

  • Exacerbating Gender Inequality: Climate change exacerbates poverty and vulnerabilities among women, potentially pushing 130 million people into poverty by 2050.
  • Investing in Women's Education and Training: To build resilience to climate change, investments in women's education, training, and access to resources are crucial. Empowering them with knowledge and sustainable practices can mitigate the negative impacts.
  • Gender-Inclusive Climate Policy: Women's active participation in climate policy decision-making is essential. Gender parity in decision-making bodies is crucial for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Initiatives like the Gender and Climate Change Development Programme aim to amplify women's voices in policymaking.
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