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14th June 2024 (11 Topics)

The global fight over Climate Finance

Context

The upcoming U.N. COP29 climate summit in November is gearing up to address crucial issues regarding global climate finance. With nearly 200 countries in attendance, discussions are underway to establish a new global funding goal to combat climate change.

What is Climate Finance?

  • Climate finance refers to financial support provided by wealthier nations to help developing countries invest in projects aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
  • This funding is crucial for developing nations to implement sustainable initiatives and cope with extreme weather events.

The Need for a New Goal:

  • The current goal, set in 2009, pledged $100 billion annually from 2020 to 2025 for climate finance.
  • However, due to worsening climate change and insufficient clean energy investments in developing nations, estimates for required funds have skyrocketed.
  • Reports suggest that $2.4 trillion per year will be needed by 2030 to meet climate goals and protect vulnerable societies.
  • Proposed Funding Targets: Ahead of COP29, various proposals have been put forward regarding the new funding goal.
    • The Arab group suggests $1.1 trillion annually, with a significant portion coming directly from developed countries.
    • Similarly, India, African nations, and small island states advocate for over $1 trillion annually, with differing views on funding sources.

Challenges and Debates:

  • Obligation for funding: One major debate revolves around which countries should contribute to climate finance. Currently, only a few wealthy nations are obligated to provide funding, leading to calls for an updated list that includes countries like China and high GDP per capita nations. However, this proposal faces resistance, particularly from China.
  • Defining Climate Finance: Another challenge lies in defining what constitutes climate finance. While most public funding currently consists of loans, concerns have been raised about the burden of debt on poorer nations. Additionally, debates center around whether commitments to cut fossil fuel subsidies should be reflected in the funding goal.

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