India has the third-largest international border in the world. It also serves as the most sensitive border of the world. It varies from the extreme climatic conditions to infiltration.9 countries in total share the international borders with India out of which 7 countries share land borders whereas 2 countries share sea borders.
The length of the land border is 15,106.7 km and the coastline border is 7,516.6 km
The Indian state which shares its border with this country is Ladakh (PoK). The border length is 106 km.
There are many states which share its border with this country. The states are – West Bengal, Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Assam. The border length is 4096.7 km
The states which share the border with this country are – West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Assam. The border length is 699 km.
The regions which share the border with this country are – Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, and Sikkim. The border length is 3488 km. The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the borderline shared by India and China.
The regions which share the Myanmar border are – Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, and Nagaland The border length is – 1643 km.
The regions which share the Nepal-India border are – West Bengal, Sikkim, Bihar, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh. The border length is 1751 km.
The regions which share the Indo-Pak border are – Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan Gujarat, and Ladakh. The border length is 3323 km. The Line of Control (LoC) is shared between Pakistan and India.
8. Sri Lanka
The country shares a sea-line border with India. It is separated by the Gulf of Mannar.
This country also shares a sea-line border with India. It lies in the South-West part of the Indian Ocean below the Lakshadweep Island
India’s neighbourhood which the member-countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) namely Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka comprise is a fairly complex geographical entity. This is to say the least. In fact India can be said to be living in a dangerous neighbourhood. The issues with neighbouring countries are summed up as:
Kashmir and militancy
Sir creek issues at western part of Gujarat
Saltoro ridge in Himalayas
BADP (Border Area Development Programe) is being implemented by MHA through state governments and Group of ministers recommended principle of “One Border One Force” which made govt to setup Paramilitary forces; SSB, BSF, ITBP which have specialized area responsibility.
The role of technology is crucial as it eases the job for security forces along border areas in countering various issues mentioned above and at same time if the technology provided is indigenous it will create employment opportunity and helps in achieving self reliance in the defence and allied sectors.
In August 2020, the Ministry of Defence published a list of 101 items for which there will be an embargo (ban) on import. The list includes weapon systems, such as artillery guns, and anti-submarine rocket launchers, and equipment such as high power radar and upgrade systems. The ban on each item will apply as per the deadline specified.
For 67 items, the ban came into effect from December 2020. The Ministry expects the ban on imports to give a push to self-reliance in the defence sector by boosting the domestic industry. It estimates that the embargo will result in domestic contracts of nearly four lakh crore rupees within the next five to seven years. Between April 2015 and August 2020, Rs 3.5 lakh crore worth of these items was procured.
The Defence Acquisition Procedure (DAP) governs the acquisition of weapons and equipment for India’s defence forces. The DPP 2016 specified two modes of capital acquisition: (i) buy, and (ii) buy and make. The DAP has introduced ‘leasing’ as a new mode of acquisition. Leasing substitutes initial capital outlays with periodical rental payments. It is preferred in situations where: (i) procurement is not feasible due to time constraint, or (ii) the asset is required only for a specific time. ‘Make’ refers to manufacturing portion of the contract.
In September 2020, the limit for foreign direct investment under the automatic route was increased from 49% to 74%. FDI beyond 74% is permitted with government approval which may be given where FDI is likely to result in access to modern technology. Domestic companies can benefit from enhanced access to capital and state of the art technology. This change was announced as part of the Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan.
Categories of acquisition provided in DAP are:
Challenges in the modern world for a developing country is quite indispensable and for a country like India where its neighbours pose continuous challenges in many possible ways it is essential to equip with fully built defence system to check the challenges, But the excessive dependency on foreign states for arms procurement is a major drawback as it is not a fair game in such times of challenges. So encouraging indigenous arms and technologies can add up more security to the nation and also promotes economic growth and sustainability. Judicious use of technology, men power and building capacity will enhance stability in defence sector to tackle challenges at any time.
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