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STRATEGY FOR COASTAL & OFFSHORE SECURITY

  • Published
    12th Jul, 2019

The objective of Maritime Security is mainly to protect Indian coastal and offshore assets response to attacks and threats, risks emanating from or at sea.

The seamless nature of the maritime domain enables ready flow of threats and challenges from one area to another. In recent years, the rise in non-traditional threats, especially maritime terrorism, has necessitated increased focus on coastal and offshore security.

Maritime terrorism has grown and expanded over the years, operating from the sea and at sea, in both direct and indirect forms. It has also started taking an increasingly hybrid character, with possible blurring of  lines between conventional and sub-conventional levels of conflict.

The strategy for coastal and offshore security  should  accordingly, been developed with focus on the Indian Navy, as per its current mandate and being the principal maritime force of  the nation, in a framework of jointness and coordination with the other maritime agencies. An increasing role and operational responsibilities are envisaged to be takenup by the Indian Coast Guard and other agencies, as their capabilities and the ambit of  coastal security both evolve.

Different facets of maritime security

  • Coastal security is a subset of maritime security, focused on the coastal waters. It is ensured through coordinated efforts amongst multiple stakeholders at the Centre and States, towards provision of comprehensive security against traditional and non-traditional threats. Coastal security has a wide connotation encompassing maritime border management, island security, maintenance of peace, stability and good order in coastal areas and enforcement of  laws therein, security of  ports, coastal installations and other structures, including Vital Areas and Vital Points (VAs/ VPs), vessels and personnel operating in coastal areas. An effective organisation for coastal security also facilitates coastal defence.
  • Offshore security relates to the safety and protection of offshore assets, including artificial islands, offshore terminals, installations and other structures and devices in the EEZ. It is a primary responsibility of  the Indian Coast Guard, which would be supported by the Indian Navy as required towards overall maritime security. Indian naval ships, including dedicated Immediate Support Vessels (ISVs), conduct regular offshore defence patrols in the Offshore Development Areas (ODA) in support of  offshore security. The seaward approaches are sanitised by other ships and aircraft of  the Coast Guard and Indian Navy.

The Indian Navy

Entrusted with the responsibility for overall maritime security, including coastal security and offshore security. The Indian Navy is assisted by the Indian Coast Guard, State Marine Police, andother Central and State agencies for the coastal defence of  the nation, and controls all Navy - Coast Guard joint operations. The Indian Navy supports the Indian Coast Guard within the maritime zones as required, and provides presence, including surveillance and patrol, on the high seas beyond the EEZ. The Indian Navy also undertakes patrolling in the ODA, and its Sagar Prahari Bal (SPB) specialised force undertakes patrolling of  naval harbours.

State Marine Police

The State Marine Police is responsible for patrolling the inner layer from the coastline upto the territorial waters, in coordination with Customs, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and respective port authorities, as relevant.

Indian Coast Guard

The Indian Coast Guard patrols the maritime zones of  India, and supports the State Marine Police within the inner layer as required.

Different reporting mechanism for handling security?

  • Position Reporting Systems: Indian and foreign vessels report their positions by various means, including manual and automatic, under voluntary and mandatory mechanisms. This is done to improve security response, search and rescue, and collision-avoidance.
  • Fishing Vessels and License Information Management: Verification and monitoring of the identity and ownership of about 2,45,000 fishing vessels in India, amidst a fishing community of about 4 million, has been greatly eased by creation of the online ReALCraft (Registration and Licensing of Fishing Craft) portal. The information is also available to the Indian Navy and Coast Guard.
  • Biometric Identity Cards: Issuance of biometric identity cards to majority fishermen and composite card readers to the maritime security agencies has been done, to enable biometric verification of the identity of fishing vessel crews at Sea.
  • Port Vessel Information Management: The details of various vessels in harbour and their planned movements are available with the major ports, which have developed an online information portal, called the Port Community System (PCS). This information is shared with the Indian Navy and Coast Guard. Similar steps would be pursued for the non-major ports.
  • Static Surveillance: Surveillance radars and Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers have been fitted along the Indian coast, islands and offshore installations. Radars at major ports monitor and manage traffic approaching respective harbours. These various static surveillance systems provide active information on vessels operating in their vicinity (upto 25 nm, or 45 km), and feed into the development of Maritime Domain Awareness(MDA).
  • Dynamic Surveillance: Dynamic surveillance is undertaken by deployment of  Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard and State Marine Police assets, in multiple layers across the coastal waters and seaward approaches. These include Long Range Maritime Reconnaissance (LRMR) aircraft in the outer layer, Short Range Maritime Reconnaissance (SRMR) aircraft, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and ships across the interim layers, and patrol vessels and micro-UAVs in the inner layer. These will be aided by space based surveillance, to increase and intensify the surveillance cover.

Importance of coastal community participation

Coastal and fishing communities are the largest constituents of the coastal security framework and are amongst its core strengths. Effective involvement of the vast fourmillion strong fishing community, and the larger coastal community, has the potentialto significantly complement efforts of  the security agencies.

The maritime security agencies have initiated many activities related to it such as:

Community Interaction Programmes (CIP) are being conducted by the Indian Coast Guard at all fishing hamlets, to enhance awareness of  the coastal populace and fishermen in particular. Initiatives such as the Sagar Rakshak Dal and Village Vigilance Committees, who are a voluntary group from fishing and coastal communities, assist the security agencies in surveillance, intelligence and patrolling, and have contributed to enhancing coastal security in several states.

Toll free communication arrangements have been established, with shore-based control centres manned by State Marine Police/Indian Coast Guard personnel in all states and Union Territories (UTs), in order to facilitate coastal community participation. These measures have not only improved security but have also saved lives, and provide an important link between fishermen and security agencies

Conclusion:

Coastal security involves multiple stakeholders with both, independent and shared responsibilities. Hence coordination amongst these agencies should be maintained through a cooperative approach that will focus on the key aspects described below, whilst remaining sensitive to any limitations and constraints of partner agencies. This should takes into consideration the specific needs of  changing threat levels, including conditions wherein a coastal security operation may need to translate rapidly into a coastal defence operation, with joint deployment of forces from multiple maritime agencies.

India has been engaged into trade since ancient time through its maritime route. There are evidences of Harappan civilization had commercial ties with Mesopotamia and Arabian Gulf  region. Many travellers to India had recognised flourishment of  coastal Indian states on account of  trade in spice, cotton, handicraft and silk via oceanic route in their travelogue.

Access to India via Indian Ocean has been a vital strategic trade route since the early medieval period also, but was substantially exercised by the Europeans in the 16th to 19th century to gain an economic and political foothold within the region. Britishers controlled the entire region by taming the entire ocean through the developing of  the well structured maritime rings. However, after 2nd World War when Britishers withdraw from the Indian Ocean, major power of  the world tried to occupy it but with interventions of  UN, Indian Ocean was declared as the “zone of peace”.

World's third largest water body i.e. Indian Ocean is the only ocean of  the world which is named after the Indian sub-continent. This signifies the geospatial & strategic influence of India over the Indian Ocean. India has a vast coast line of 7517 km in the Indian Ocean. Its large geospatial expansion from Gujarat in the west to West Bengal in the east on main Land & Andaman & Nicobar as an island in east provide it a distinguished advantage in geostrategic terms.

Geopolitically, India projects its major significance in the Indian Ocean because of many inter-related factors evolved which include:

  • Wide spectrum of Natural resource base.  Significant marine trading route.
  • Ever multiplying security & strategic significance.

Indian Ocean has been proven for its crude oil & natural gas resources. Further the large potential of natural gas on the eastern coast of India and commercial potentialities of tidal energy in the west added strategically significant advantage to India's energy reserves.

The biotic resources as commercially proven category include sea weeds, planktons and pearls; however in the reference to increasing requirement of raw material supplies and diversification, nektonic biotic assets have also been exploited on commercial lines. This has multiplied many folds in the recent past primarily due to deceased harvest of the traditional food fish from the temperate waters. In mineral resources commercially exploitable salt & manganese nodules have been added to the India's resource base.

Geopolitical significance of India because of its maritime position lies in, being on the maritime trade route of the Indian Ocean. Strait of Malacca in the east and Suez canal & Cape of Good Hope in the west as an entry & exit point of this ocean commands more than 70% of the world's seaborne trade in oil transits and more than 50% global container movement through Indian Ocean choke points including Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Bab-el Mandel.

Strategic significance of India also increases because of geographic transitional position in the middle of the inter-connecting Atlantic & Pacific Ocean trade route & its being the only major Naval power to provide the safety & security to the trade in the region.

Strategic & security significance of India's maritime location also increases because of it being a Rimland which have significant technological, economic and military holding capacity. Its possession of  nuclear power & locational advantage of launching ballistic missile adds to its importance toward geopolitical sensitivities. India's engagement with regional & extra regional power in joint naval exercise to contain piracy in the Indian ocean, safety of sea lanes and mutual understating to work on a joint operation in the ocean ensure the trust of most of the Indian Ocean Rim Countries in India's capability & future of its being a global power to maintain peace in the region.

To leverage the potential of  being present on the oceanic trade route, Indian Government has called for the blue economy development, modernization of  its ports, initiative taken for the Sagarmala programme, Industrial parks and logistic parks. This will provide the port led development in the Indian coastal states thus power fuel the Indian economy.

However, India’s has significant concerns of  permanent Chinese expansion into the Indian Ocean have been validated with the $20 billion dollar 'Maritime Silk Road' project announced by Beijing. For New Delhi, this remains a contentious and complex issue of  balancing security engagements with Indo-Pacific neighbours, as well as embracing China economically but simultaneously attempting to restrain their maritime influence, creating a fragile environment in the Indian Ocean. Other challenges include technology capacity build up to leverage on the resource base of Indian Ocean and contain piracy in the Indian Ocean.

Recent efforts of  India of  its naval diplomacy with the Indian Ocean Rim countries and outer world powers

& modernizing its naval fleet would provide a peaceful solution to the ambitions of  India in the Indian Ocean.

The India ocean region:

  • It is rich in energy resources and minerals such as gold, tin, uranium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum and cadmium, and also contains abundant fishing resources.
  • Roughly 55% of known oil reserves and 40% of gas reserves are in the Indian Ocean region. The Gulf and Arab states produce around 21% of the world’s oil, with daily crude exports of  up to 17,262 million barrels representing about 43% of international exports.
  • Indian Ocean ports handle about 30% of global trade and half  of  the word’s container traffic traverses the ocean.

However, the Indian Ocean has some of  the world’s most important choke points, notably the Straits of Hormuz, Malacca, and the Bab-el Mandeb.

As these choke points are strategically important for global trade and energy flow, the security of them become strategically important.

Indian Ocean has always been vulnerable to criminals and anti-national activities. The Indian Ocean is an area of conflict. Some conflicts are internal and remain localised, but others are of global significance and are prone to foreign, political and military interference.

According to a recent analysis of global conflicts by the Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research, altogether 42% of world conflicts can be associated with Indian Ocean countries. Numerous cases of the smuggling of  goods, gold, narcotics, explosives, arms and ammunition as well as the infiltration of  terrorists into the country through these coasts have been reported over the years.

During the Cold War the newly independent Indian Ocean states of  Asia and Africa became subject to the competition between the superpowers. The resultant security balance in the region dissipated when the Cold War came to an end. The post-Cold War era saw the region becoming less stable, with much rivalry, competition, suspicion and turmoil.

Moreover, the maritime security environment in the Indian Ocean also underwent transformation. Because of weak government structures and a limited capacity to control maritime domains, all types of  illicit activities began to flourish in many parts of the Indian Ocean.

As a result, the region’s maritime security challenges are now considerable and are affected by key variables such as militarisation within the region, the involvement of major and extra-regional powers, and non-traditional security threats.

India faces a number of  threats and challenges that originate from the sea and which are mainly sub-conventional in nature. These threats and challenges can be categorised under following broad categories: maritime terrorism; piracy and armed robbery; smuggling and trafficking; infiltration, illegal migration and refugee influx; and the straying of  fishermen beyond the maritime boundary. Of  these, maritime terrorism has been featured as the most potent threat.

Major Security Threats faced by India are:

  1. Maritime Terrorism:

Cross border terrorism has taken an entirely new dimension. The Indian security establishment is on high alert to tackle the newest frontier of  terror - Maritime Terrorism. The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP) Working Group has defined maritime terrorism as:"the undertaking of terrorist acts and activities within the maritime environment, using or against vessels or fixed platforms at sea or in port, or against any one of their passengers or personnel, against coastal.

Mumbai Attack: The smuggling of explosives through the Raigad coast in Maharashtra and their use in the 1993 serial blasts in Mumbai, and the infiltration of the 10 Pakistani terrorists through the sea route who carried out the multiple coordinated attacks in Mumbai on November 26, 2008, are the most glaring examples of  how vulnerable the country's coasts are.

 Lashkar-e-Toiba, (LeT) is planning to use the sea-route to infiltrate and attack India's oil assets in Bombay High, sabotage ports and target high value assets such as the atomic power plants located on the coast or attack INS Vikrant.

Intelligence agencies had informed the government that nearly 500 LeT terrorists were being trained in the

Azizabad coastal camps near Karachi to execute acts of maritime terrorism within India's Exclusive Economic

Zone (EEZ) as well as attack high value assets along India's more than 7,000 kms mainland coastline.

The terrorist organisations could misuse hundreds of Indian fishing boats seized over the years by the Pakistani Navy and Coast Guard for allegedly straying into Pakistani territorial waters. In fact, the thinking within the national security establishment was that these fishing boats could be used by Pakistan based terrorists to infiltrate into Indian waters through Indian Ocean.

  1. Piracy and Armed Robbery:

Piracy is part of a maritime insecurity environment in which different threats and forms of transnational organized crime, in particular fishery crimes, are linked. The rampant piracy off  the coast of  Somalia has forcefully reminded security and strategic experts that terror operations could well be outsourced to sea pirates as well. A hijacked merchant vessel carrying several thousand tonnes of the inflammable fertilizer ingredient ammonium nitrate could easily be turned into a mega bomb after entering an Indian harbour.

The movement by sea of large volume of commercial freight and its mandatory movement through maritime choke points, such as the Panama Canal, Suez Canal, Strait of  Hormuz, Strait of  Bab-el-Mandab, the Malacca Strait and the Bosporus Strait invite piracy.

Somalia and the Gulf of Aden:  Piracy has been predominant in the seas of Somalia and the Gulf of Aden between 2005 and 2012. There has also been an increasing number of attacks in the Gulf of Guinea. The Djibouti Code of Conduct was adopted in 2009 for Repression of Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf  of  Aden. Due to such efforts Somalia-based piracy has shown a significant decline after its peak in 2011.

Malacca Strait: Malacca Strait is located between Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. It is one of the world's most important international shipping routes, with 65,000 vessels passing through annually, carrying about one-third of the world trade and half of global energy supplies. It also connects Indian Ocean with the Pacific. This region has a reputation of piracy with most cases reported are 'hit-and-run' robberies of fishing boats and commercial vessels.

While attacks on fishermen by pirates are reported from all over the Sunderbans, Kendudweep and the mouths of the Rivers Matla, Bidya and Thakuran are particularly vulnerable.

Could piracy on high Seas morph into this new face of terrorism?

With well armed Somali pirates wreaking havoc on shipping lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Gulf  of  Aden between Somalia and Yemen, Al Qaeda and its associate terror groups could easily outsource maritime terrorism to mercenary pirate groups. From seizing cargo ships to supertankers ferrying millions of dollars of crude oil, the Somali pirates attacked and hijacked 90 vessels in 2008 for ransom and looting cargo from wheat to chemicals. Security experts suggest that terror groups could easily rope in pirates who have good knowledge of shipping routes, have access to satellite phones and communication links with ports in the region which enable them to access accurate satellite communication about cargo shipping lines.

  1. Smuggling and human trafficking:

Organised crime, trafficking and smuggling are increasingly linked to global patterns of  violence. Drugs and arms smuggling is rife in much of the Indian Ocean. The sea provides an easy way for international crime syndicates, unscrupulous traders and non-state actors to distribute their wares, or to provide belligerents with highly sophisticated weapons. Because of  the prevalence of  conflicts and insurgencies, arms smugglers find a ready market in areas such as the Horn of Africa, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. It is estimated that as much as 95 per cent of  'hard' drug production occurs in conflict zones, for example heroin and cannabis in Afghanistan. Organised crime is also engaged in much of  the counterfeit trade, which includes everything from cigarettes to famous brand-name fashions and medicines. It is estimated that as much as 50 per cent of all pharmaceuticals sold in Africa and Asia could be counterfeit.

While the entire coast of the India is vulnerable to clandestine landings of contraband, the Gujarat-Maharashtra coastline, the Tamil Nadu coast, the Sunderbans in West Bengal, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been particularly prone to such activities.

People from areas that offer few opportunities are constantly looking for illegal ways of moving to countries in the developed world. Large international trafficking networks operate across the Indian Ocean. As arms and drugs, trafficking in human beings is the best source of  income to organised crime, but, shockingly, it appears that human trafficking is now beginning to replace drugs as the second largest source of income since 'bodies can be replaced'.

CASE STUDY: With the start of civil war in Sri Lanka and the influx of Sri Lankan refugees and militant cadres into India, additional items such as arms, ammunition, gelatine sticks, detonators, boat engines, diesel, etc. were smuggled out of the shores of Tamil Nadu. By the mid-1990s, heroin originating in Afghanistan and Pakistan began to be smuggled out of the Tamil Nadu coast. Even after the end of the civil war in Sri Lanka, the smuggling of gold and drugs has continued unabated. The strong links between criminal groups and ex-LTTE rebels that were established during the years of  war have remained unbroken, thus facilitating the smooth running of their operations.

 In India difficult terrain, porous borders, strong linkages between people residing on either side of  the border, and poor surveillance has made the Sunderbans a smuggler's paradise.

  1. Infiltration, Illegal Migration and the Refugee Influx:

India's land boundaries have always been porous to infiltration by terrorists/militants and large scale illegal migration. These large scale influxes over the decades have resulted in widespread political turmoil in the border states.

As far as infiltration by the sea route is concerned, the creek areas of  Gujarat have been highly vulnerable. Geographical proximity to Pakistan and a terrain that is conducive for stealth movements make the region ideal for infiltration.

The Indian security and intelligence agencies have also highlighted the fact that suspected members of  LeT and other terrorist groups operating from Pakistan could infiltrate through Lakshadweep.

The eastern and southern coasts face the problem of illegal migration and the influx of refugees. Pushed by political turmoil, religious and political persecution, overwhelming poverty, and lack of  opportunities in their countries, Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi nationals have been migrating to India illegally for decades. Although such people do not pose a direct threat to India's security, but the probability that terror operatives could take advantage of  this and sneak into the country in the guise of  migrants and refugees remains. Also, given the harsh economic conditions in the countries from where they come, the propensity towards indulging in illegal activities to earn easy money is also greater in the migrant populations.

The Tamil Nadu coast has been experiencing a steady inflow of  Sri Lankan refugees since civil war broke out in that country. The maximum influx of  refugees took place in the initial years of  the ethnic war. Between 1983 and 1991, a total of  2.56 lakh refugees took shelter in Tamil Nadu.

   5. Straying of Fishermen beyond the Maritime Boundary:

The frequent straying of fishermen into neighbouring country waters has not only jeopardised the safety of the fishermen but has also raised national security concerns. Fishermen who trespass into a neighbour country's waters are invariably arrested along with their boats. On many occasions, they have also been fired upon by security agencies of  the neighbouring country. Sometimes straying into neighbours waters invites attacks from pirates, as often happens along the India-Bangladesh maritime border.

  1. Environmental security

Insufficient emphasis is placed on environmental security in the Indian Ocean, which is particularly serious since the degradation of the environment, climate change and the overexploitation of ocean resources are threatening the interests and futures of all the region's countries and peoples. This will increase the likelihood of flooding, resulting in loss of life and damage to property, as illustrated by recent tsunamis and cyclones. The existence of communities residing on low-lying islands such as the Maldives will be severely threatened. African countries are also likely to be affected adversely by climate change owing to the risks posed to food production and water resources. Since close to 40 per cent of Asia's roughly four billion inhabitants live within 100km of  the coast, climate change is likely to affect their quality of  life and security.

Somalia Dumping Ground: The waters off  Somalia, in particular, have been badly affected as they are within easy reach of  industrial countries, public awareness is low and influential locals have allowed toxic waste dumping to occur, usually in exchange for foreign currency payments. Somalia has been a dumping ground for hazardous waste since the early 1990s. It is much cheaper for European companies to dispose of waste here than in other parts of the world.

    7. Ocean resources security

Because of  the growth in global prosperity and technological advances, competition for resources in and under the oceans, specifically energy and protein, is intensifying. World energy consumption is growing significantly, particularly in Asia and the Middle East. The fast-growing Indian and Chinese economies are forecast to be the key energy consumers in the future. As national efforts to control energy sources and to secure energy shipments are increasing, some observers contend that energy competition may result in conflict. However, a counter view is that it is in the common interest of the powers concerned to maintain a stable trading environment.

Why do we need to Ensure Maritime Security in Indian Ocean?

From the strategic and economic point of view, ensuring maritime security is vital for India and Indian Ocean's Countries. Various reasons as to why we need to secure maritime are given below:

  • Economic progress
  • Energy security
  • Marine Environment
  • Protection of Port facilities
  • Maritime Transport encompassing goods and people  Safety of navigation
  • Fisheries
  • Manage water pollution  Stop Infiltration

Measures against Security threats

The measures that have been taken and planned to enhance the coastal security includes at National and International level.

National:

Indian Navy continuously carries out patrols, goodwill visits and joint training to display a show of  force, increased their presence in affected regions and integrate with other navies of  the region for the safety and the security of the maritime domain.

Government of India created 2 specialised forces: the Customs Marine Organisation and the Indian Coast Guard.

The Customs Marine Organisation: The Customs Marine Organisation (CMO) was created following the recommendations of the Nag Chaudhari Committee. The objective of the committee was to suggest the optimum assets required for anti-smuggling operations as well as recommend ways to curb smuggling through the sea.

The Indian Coast Guard: The creation of a coast guard which could perform a variety of duties ranging from patrolling the territorial and contiguous waters; enforcing criminal laws in these waters; ensuring compliance of laws relating to shipping, fishing and pollution; assisting the Customs Department in anti-smuggling operations; and conducting search and rescue and other specified duties.

The national authority for Maritime Search and Rescue Region in the Indian Search and Rescue Region; and The Lead Intelligence Agency (LIA) for coastal borders.

Operation Tasha: The Indian Navy launched Operation Tasha on June 21, 1990 with the objectives of preventing illegal immigration and the infiltration of  LTTE militants to and from Sri Lanka.

Operation Swan: Operation Swan was launched in April 1993, in the immediate aftermath of  the Mumbai bomb blasts. Its aim was to prevent clandestine landings of contraband and illegal infiltration along the Maharashtra and Gujarat coasts.

The Marine Police Force: The marine police force was created under the Coastal Security Scheme (CSS) that was launched in 2005. The aim of the CSS was to strengthen infrastructure for patrolling and the surveillance of the coastal areas, particularly the shallow areas close to the coast.

Multilayered Surveillance System: A multilayered system of  surveillance of  the country's maritime domain involving the Indian Navy, Coast Guard, Marine Police, Customs, and the Fishermen had come into being following the series of measures that were implemented over the years to secure India's coasts prior to the Mumbai terrorist attacks in 2008. The multilayered surveillance system was, however, functioning only along the Gujarat and Maharashtra coasts. Under the system, the outer layer (beyond 50 nautical) was patrolled by the Indian naval and coast guard ships and aircraft; the intermediate layers (25-50 nautical miles) was patrolled by the ships of  the Indian navy and the ICG as well as hired trawlers; and the inner layer i.e. the territorial waters (shoreline to 12 nautical miles), was patrolled by the joint patrolling team and later by the marine police. A similar system was also functional along the Tamil Nadu coast, but with slight modifications.

Electronic Surveillance: Government of India has launched the coastal surveillance network project. The network comprises the coastal radar chain, the Automatic Identification System (AIS), and VTMS. The project involves the setting up of  46 static radars along the Indian coastline, 36 in the mainland and 10 in the island territories under Phase I. An additional 38 radars will be installed under Phase II, which would be supplemented by 8 mobile surveillance systems.

 Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Fishermen: All big fishing trawlers (20 metres and above) are being installed with transponders. As for small fishing vessels, a proposal to fit them with the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) is under consideration. Colour codes are being assigned to them for easy identification at sea. Furthermore, Distress Alert Transmitters (DATs) are being provided to fishermen so that they can alert the ICG if they are in distress at sea. Global Positioning System (GPS), communication equipment, echo- sounder, and a search and rescue beacon for fishermen.

International:

2016 marks the beginning of the transition of the counter-piracy response in the Horn of Africa. Many states have already significantly reduced their involvement in counter-piracy. Recently, the High Risk Area has been revised, which documents that international stakeholders are altering the approach they take to contain piracy.

Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS). The IONS is a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase maritime cooperation among navies of  the littoral states of  the Indian Ocean region. It has 23 countries as members including India.

Heads of Asian Coast Guard Agencies Meeting (HACGAM). HACGAM provides a platform for panregional cooperation and was a take off from the Regional Senior Experts Meetings of Coast Guard Agencies of Asia which were held for combating piracy and armed robbery against ships. The first meeting was held in Tokyo in June 2004 and involved 17 nations including India.

Indian Ocean Rim Association. Their charter is to promote the sustained growth and balanced development of the region and of the member states. Maritime Safety and Security is one of key roles. It has 20 countries as members including India.

Western Pacific Naval Symposium (WPNS). They are a series of  biennial meetings of the Pacific nations to discuss naval matters held on even numbered years. A WPNS workshop is held on odd numbered years in between the symposiums. 25 countries have been participating including India.

Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific (CSCAP). CSCAP is a non-governmental (Track II) process for dialogue on security issues in the Asia-Pacific. Membership in CSCAP is on an institutional basis and consists of member countries. Current membership comprises Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Canada, China, the EU, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Democratic People's Republic of  Korea, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and the United States.

The Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) was concluded in September 4, 2006, by 14 contracting countries for this region in which India was also a member. This also includes the ReCAAP Information Sharing Centre for sharing of  piracy-related information.

Conclusion:

India faces many threats and challenges from its maritime domain. Whereas some of these threats and challenges are manifest, others are potential in nature. The scope and intensity of  the threats and challenges also varies. While threats such as maritime terrorism have the enormous ability to destroy national security, challenges like smuggling and the straying of  fishermen can also jeopardise the safety of  the nation. Thus, securing the country's coasts and its adjacent seas from these threats and challenges requires a comprehensive strategy. Over the years, Indian policy makers and security establishments have been engaged in devising policies and measures to put in place an effective response mechanism to deal with these threats and challenges.

With the present thrust on 'Make in India' policy, the maritime trade is bound to grow in the coming years and so will be the importance of security of the maritime trade in Indian Ocean. Creating a global piracy contact group and Regional, sub-regional and multinational cooperation to cover regional hotspots, is a main proposal for more Security over Indian Ocean.

Significant marine trading route

Ever multiplying security & strategic significance

Indian Ocean has been proven for its crude oil & natural gas resources. Further the large potential of natural gas on the eastern coast of India and commercial potentialities of tidal energy add significant advantage to India's energy reserves.

The biotic resources as commercially proven category include sea weeds, planktons and pearls; however in the reference to increasing requirement of  raw material supplies and diversification, nektonic biotic assets have also been exploited on commercial lines. This has multiplied many folds in the recent past primarily due to deceased harvest of the traditional food fish from the temperate waters. In mineral resources commercially exploitable salt & manganese nodules add to the India's resource base.

Geopolitical significance of India because of its maritime position lies in, being on the maritime trade route of the Indian Ocean. The Ocean is strategically significant because of its energy reserves. Strait of Malacca in the east and Suez canal & cape of good hope in the west as an entry & exit point of this ocean commands more than 70% of the world's seaborne trade in oil transits and more than 50% global container movement through Indian Ocean choke points including strait of Hormuz, strait of Bab-el Mandel.

Strategic significance of India also increase because of geographic transitional position in the middle of interconnecting Atlantic & Pacific Ocean trade route & its being the only major naval power to provide the safety & security to the trade in the region.

Strategic & security significance of India's maritime location also increases because of it being a Rimland which have significant technological, economic and military capacity. Its possession of nuclear power & locational advantage of launching ballistic missile adds to its importance toward geopolitical sensitivities. India's engagement with regional & extra regional power in joint naval exercise to contain piracy in the Indian ocean, safety of sea lanes and mutual understating to work on a joint operation in the ocean ensure the trust of most of the Indian ocean rim countries in India's capability & future of its being a global power to maintain peace in the region.

To leverage the potential of  being present on the oceanic trade route, Indian Government has called for the blue economy development, modernization of  its ports, Sagarmala programme, Industrial parks and logistic parks. This will provide the port led development in the Indian coastal states thus fuel the Indian economy.

However India has significant concerns of permanent Chinese expansion into the Indian Ocean have been validated with the $20 billion dollar 'Maritime Silk Road' project announcement by Beijing. For New Delhi, this remains a contentious and complex issue of balancing security engagements with Indo-Pacific neighbours, as well as embracing China economically but simultaneously attempting to restrain their maritime influence, creating a fragile environment in the Indian Ocean. Other challenges include technology capacity build up to leverage on the resource base of Indian Ocean and contain piracy in the Indian Ocean.

Recent efforts of  India of  its Naval diplomacy with the Indian Ocean Rim countries and outer world powers & modernizing its naval fleet would provide a peaceful solution to the ambitions of  India in the Indian Ocean.

India has long coastline of nearly 7500 km. and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of nearly 23 lakh square kilometers and shares its maritime boundary with 7 countries (Pakistan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia).

Successful delineation of maritime boundary is very much important for the peaceful and friendly relations with the neighbors, national security, scientific explorations and sustainable exploitation of the marine resources of the EEZ, bringing clarity to fishermen and for maritime co-operation on various issues like piracy, disaster management, security cooperation, etc.

The issue of Sir Creek and therefore pending maritime boundary demarcation between India and Pakistan; fisherman issue of  Sri Lanka are the two major maritime disputes in which India is involved at present, after it has successfully delineated its maritime boundary with Bangladesh in 2014.

  1. India's Maritime dispute with Pakistan

India's maritime dispute with Pakistan involves the demarcation of  boundary along Sir Creek. sir Creek will further provide the reference point for demarcation of  maritime boundary.

Sir Creek is a tidal estuary which exist on the border of India and Pakistan (Gujarat state and Sind Province).The land boundary between the countries upto Western Terminus were fixed by UN Tribunal, but it left the boundary from thereon undemarcated. This has become a conflicting issue between the two countries.

The dispute is mainly on 3 issues:

The actual demarcation "from the mouth of Sir Creek to the top of Sir Creek".

The actual demarcation "from the top of Sir Creek eastward to a point on the line designated on the Western Terminus".

Demarcation of maritime boundary between India and Pakistan in Arabian Sea.

As per the Pakistan views, boundary lies to the eastern flank of  creek (i.e. creek part of  Pakistan) and shows the agreement signed in 1914 between Government of Sindh and Rao Maharaj of Kutch to buttress its point.

On the other hand, India also used the same document and 'thalweg doctrine' to claim that boundary lies in between the creek. Thalweg doctrine says that, boundary line must be midway through a navigable channel. India also shows the 1914 document which says that, the creek is navigable during high tides and says that, pillars which were installed in 1924 were along the midcourse.

Pakistan counters India's claim by saying that, the creek is not a non-tidal river and thalweg doctrine can be used in case of  non-tidal rivers only.

Another important point is that, Sir Creek frequently changes its course and this creates difficulty in demarcation of boundaries.

Economic reasons

Though the creek has little military value, it holds immense economic gain. Much of  the region is rich in oil and gas below the sea bed, and control over the creek would have a huge bearing on the energy potential of each nation.

What will be the benefits of earlier resolution of the issue?

Once the boundaries are defined, it would help in the determination of the maritime boundaries which are drawn as an extension of  onshore reference points. Maritime boundaries will also help in determining the limits of (EEZs) and Continental Shelves.

The demarcation would also prevent the inadvertent crossing over of fishermen of both nations into each other's territories.

  1. India- Sri Lanka maritime issue

India has successfully demarcated its maritime boundary with Sri Lanka through 1974 and 1976 agreement. Inspite of that some issues have cropped up in recent regarding the fisherman and Kachchathivu island which has brought some confusion.

Kachchathivu issue:

  • 1974 Agreement, the boundary line was agreed upon based on 'modified equidistance line'. And Kachchathivu island was give to Sri Lanka and special provisions were included to allow the continuing use of Kachchathivu for pilgrimage and for drying nets and free movement of vessels in the Palk Bay as before. But, fishing was not explicitly mentioned.
  • Indian fisherman has claimed their traditional fishing rights in the region which have been denied by the Sri Lankan authorities. But such rights are not mentioned in agreement. This has infuriated Indian fishermans.
  • In 2014, Tamil Nadu Government pleaded in Supreme Court to cancel the ceding of island to Sri Lanka as it was not approved by Parliament. But Indian government clarified that, island was not ceded, but was a disputed territory and therefore was given during boundary settlement process. (In Berubari Union case it has been decided that settling of territorial disputes does not require Parliamentary approval.)

Fisherman's issue:

  • The narrow waters between the two countries and historical fishing by the fisherman communities in the same region without any problems have become a problem in present days because of security threats and threat to ecosystem.
  • The issue of Indian fisherman staying into Sri Lankan water gained significance after Sri Lankan Navy started exercising greater control and vigilance over Palk Strait during Tamil Elam war. It was an attempt by the navy to stop arms smuggling and other illegal activities. During the process many a times they had fired on Indian fisherman which had infuriated despute.
  • After the end of LTTE war, the security has remained heightened. Along with this the ease on the restriction on Sri Lankan fisherman, use of high end technology by Indian fisherman has complicated the issue.
  • The issue is more related to technical and administrative measures than to maritime dispute and should be solved accordingly.

Conclusion:

It is high time that all the stakeholders realizes the importance of early resolution of all the disputes and work in that direction. Success of  various Indian initiatives like offshore Wind Policy is based on the successful demarcation of boundary which will help in overall regional development around the Indian Ocean.

In the wake of growing maritime trade (through Sea Line of Communication), increasing maritime security threats (piracy) and vigorous race for marine resources (petroleum, polymetalic nodules, etc), Naval strength and maritime infrastructure has become indispensable not only for securing a strategic advantage in world geopolitics but also to secure county's vital economic lifeline.

In this backdrop , the new Chinese leadership has proposed revival of Maritime Silk Route as a Sea counter  part of  it's OBOR (One Belt One Road i.e. land silk route), which will drastically transform its connectivity with Indian Ocean littoral states and countries of South East Asia. The proposed port cities and maritime infrastructure will become conduit of economic cooperation and will elevate China to a strategic vantage.

Why China needs Maritime Silk Route (MSR)?

  • To revive Chinese Economy: When the export led Chinese is facing a phase of slowdown, the land and maritime silk route initiatives will act as lucrative investment destination of  huge Forex reserve , with a positive impact on its trade and economy.
  • Strategic advantage : Given the rising significance of South East Asia and Indian Ocean , the Maritime Silk Route will provide a strategic advantage to Chinese by legalizing its presence in important port centres of Indian Ocean (which has become the new great game of global powers).
  • Peripheral Diplomacy: Through MSR, China aims to pose a soft and reassuring posture among its neighbourhood, where tensions are rising over China's hegemonic power projection and unilateral appropriation of South China Sea.
  • Maritime security & Regional stability: Presence of mammoth Chinese Navy will ensure maritime security (from piracy, etc) along the entire Sea Line of  Communications (SLOC).
  • A counter to US pivot towards Asia: MSR will act as a counter balance to US pivot and encircling of China.The economic content will provide a stronger glue to the underlying strategic ambition.

Implications for India

Despite several proposals from Chinese Government, India has successfully skirted out the controversial MSR.

India should sincerely evaluates the advantages and concerns of MSR initiative before taking any decision on it.

Advantages are:

  • Huge opportunity for maritime economic cooperation: In the backdrop of slowing Chinese export , India can leverage its low cost labour and raw-material. MSR presents an opportunity to strengthen India's manufacturing base, propagate its 'Make in India' campaign, and generate employment opportunities.
  • Port led Development: MSR has the potential to act as a vital supplement to the the proposed "Sagarmala" project if properly integrated with Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) and other existing regional maritime infrastructure.
  • Maritime Security force multiplier: India can partner the superior Chinese Navy to ensure peace security in the Indian Ocean Rim, which is prone to various security threats ranging from piracy to maritime terrorism.(Indian Navy being the sole security provider in the entire region).
  • Political Dividend: Enhanced maritime cooperation and increased Chinese investment will lead to China developing greater stake in India, which may lead to greater interdependence and softening of stance in other areas like border dispute.

Concern Areas are :

  • Opacity in MSR: Though China has carefully projected MSR as an exclusive commercial venture, it has not yet released the details about the project, making countries (including India) apprehensive about its tacit & tactic military intensions.
  • Doubtful credential: China's positioning of an exploration rig in the Vietnam's EEZ, its skirmishes with Philippines over the Scarborough reef, and the aggressive patrols off the Senkaku islands clearly shows Chinese intensions in the Western Pacific are anything but benign. With unsettled issues of sovereignty and sovereign jurisdiction over disputed Islands in the South China Sea and the East Sea, Beijing's expectation of a free-pass to create an entire infrastructure corridor in a contested maritime space, appears seriously doubtful.
  • Strategic encircling and string of pearls: India has serious apprehensions that the maritime infrastructure will legitimize Chinese army positioning in the Indian Ocean. The China-Pakistan economic corridor, Gwadar port and growing proximity with India's maritime neighbours can hugely impair India's strategic role in its maritime neighbourhood.
  • Indian endorsement of Chinese hegemony: If  India joins the  race of  availing cheap Chinese  Infrastructure fund without ensuring it's detailed long term impact and underlying motive, it will end up endorsing Chinese hegemonic stance and loose the confidence of the regional states as an worthy balancer of growing Chinese dominance.
  • Chinese ambition in African Resource: With Chinese eye on emerging African economy and it's huge untapped resource, the MSR may turn a surrogate for giant Chinese SLOC, setting up Chinese logistical hubs in the Indian Ocean. This can bring in stiff competition for India as a natural economic partner of Africa (India enjoys a strategic advantage in Africa owing to its historical and cultural linkages).

Conclusion:

India's appreciation of the MSR must be based on an objective appraisal of these new realities. Even assuming the project delivers on its economic promise, it could well turn out to be detrimental to India's geopolitical interests in the India Ocean Region (IOR). As Beijing becomes more involved in building infrastructure in the Indian Ocean, it will play a larger part in the security and governance of the IOR, which could pose a challenge to India's stature as a 'security provider' in the region and also adversely affecting New Delhi's strategic purchase in its primary area of interest.

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