Public health system across nations is a conglomeration of all organized activities that prevent disease, prolong life and promote health and efficiency of its people.
“ Bhore committee report 1946 has been a landmark report for India, from which the current health policy and systems have evolved. The current pubic health care system was founded on principles to have a three-tiered health-care system to provide preventive and curative health care in rural and urban areas placing health workers on government payrolls and limiting the need for private practitioners.
Public health will depend upon various factors including; Climate, food, geographical setting and sanitation thus factors impacting the health of masses is a crucial part, Sanitation status has key role in driving sanitation . Thus sanitation and public health are co-related and had significance.
The main objective of a sanitation system is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable, a sanitation system has to be not only economically viable, socially acceptable, and technically and institutionally appropriate, it should also protect the environment and the natural resources” - SuSanA (2008).
According to sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA); Sustainable sanitation is a sanitation system designed to meet certain criteria and to work well over the long-term. Sustainable sanitation systems consider the entire "sanitation value chain", from the experience of the user, excreta and wastewater collection methods, transportation or conveyance of waste, treatment, and reuse or disposal.
To consider a sanitation system as Sustainable if they meet the 5 criteria’s mentioned as per sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) are:
Water supply and sanitation is a State responsibility under the Constitution of India and following the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, the States give the responsibility and powers to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs).
The Central Water Commission (CWC) in the Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) has responsibilities for regulating the use of surface water for irrigation, industry and drinking water purposes. The CWC also mediates in inter-state water allocation disputes. The Central Groundwater Board (CGWB) of the same Ministry has an overseeing responsibility for the monitoring of groundwater levels and rates of depletion, as well as production of water resource inventories and maps.
This chart explains the annual number of deaths by risk factors in India. “Poor sanitation, unsafe water sources, and no access to hand washing facilities” are among the top factors in the country; the list being topped by high blood pressure, air pollution, high blood sugar and smoking.
In, India diseases from untreated water and unhygienic defecation impact society not only through triggering the public health crisis, but also impacting females and children. Limited drainage systems and a lack of water preservation systems are two issues that could prevent India from fully integrating sanitation into rural areas. Fortunately, the government’s campaigns keep sanitation on the top of priorities for better India. The imperfections cannot overshadow the progress that India has made in promoting its sanitation.
India has made rapid progress in ending open defecation across the Country. The number of people defecating in open in India has reduced significantly by an estimated 450 million people and Looking at the facts and figures the Sustainable sanitation has covered in most of the areas in a short period of time with the support of ICE (Information, Communication and Education) which lead to decrease in impact of poor sanitation on health. The success of any government policy lies in its functional purpose, which is implementation.
Verifying, please be patient.