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14th October 2022 (10 Topics)

Can carbon capture be new hope for mitigating CO2 emissions?

Context

Recently, the NTPC Vindhyachal in Madhya Pradesh Limited has taken an initiative to capture carbon as electricity production by coal accounts for 40% of the CO2 emissions.

About

  • India stands third among the GHG-emitting countries in the world, emitting 2,310 megatons of CO2 in 2019.
  • These scenarios necessitate the mitigation of GHG reduction in the country to combat the effects of climate change.
  • The pioneer project of a carbon capture plant installed in NTPC Vindhyachal is in line with this. Which is designed to capture 20 tonnes of CO2 per day.
  • It uses modified ‘tertiary amine’ to capture CO2 from flue gas from fossil-fired power plants, with a purity of more than 99 percent.
  • Tertiary amine (3oamine): An amine in which the nitrogen atom is directly bonded to three carbons of any hybridization. Which cannot be carbonyl group carbons.
  • CO2 will eventually be integrated with hydrogen to produce 10 tonnes of methanol per day through a catalytic hydrogenation process.
  • Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element. Usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium, or platinum. The process is commonly employed to reduce or saturate organic compounds. Hydrogenation typically constitutes the addition of pairs of hydrogen atoms to a molecule, often an alkene.  Catalysts are required for the reaction to be usable; non-catalytic hydrogenation takes place only at very high temperatures. Hydrogenation reduces double and triple bonds in hydrocarbons.
    • Currently, there are no Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) projects in the pipeline in power plants for carbon capture in India.

    The Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) Technique:

    • Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), also referred to as carbon capture, utilization. Sequestration is a process that captures carbon dioxide emissions from sources, like coal-fired power plants, and either reuse or stores them. So, they will not enter the atmosphere.
    • Carbon dioxide storage in geologic formations includes oil and gas reservoirs, un-mineable coal seams, and deep saline reservoirs. Structures that have stored crude oil, natural gas, brine, and carbon dioxide over millions of years. 
    • The Energy Department supports the research and development of tools to assess environmental fitness. The predictability of future capacity within-proposed geologic storage sites.
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