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Historical Background:

  • The nine-dash line was originally an 11-dash line, and Chinese geographer Yang Huairen helped to drew it.
  • In 1952, it became the nine-dash line when in a moment of Communist camaraderie with Vietnam; Mao gave up China’s claims over the Gulf of Tonkin.

 India’s Nehruvian foreign policy had five principal elements:

1) non-alignment with the two Cold War superpowers

2) the tendency toward moralpolitik inherited from India’s independence movement

3) the pursuit of Indian leadership among newly independent countries in the so-called Third World

4) the preference for cooperation over competition;

5) the de-emphasis of security and military power, for ideational and pragmatic reasons

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