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28th December 2023 (9 Topics)



Union Cabinet approved the Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM JANMAN), aimed at providing PVTG households and habitations with basic facilities.

Key Highlights

  • PM JANMAN aims to address the basic needs of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), encompassing housing, water, sanitation, education, health, connectivity, and livelihood opportunities.
  • Part of the Pradhan Mantri-PVTG Development Mission, the initiative allocates Rs.15, 000 crore over three years to uplift PVTG households and habitations.


  • Originally termed Primitive Tribal Groups in 1960-61, PVTGs were identified for special attention due to disparities among Scheduled Tribes. The category was later renamed in 2006.
  • Encompassing 75 groups in 22,544 villages across 18 states and one Union Territory, PVTGs face challenges such as low literacy, pre-agricultural lifestyles, and subsistence economies.
  • Population sizes vary widely, from under 1,000 to over 1 lakh, presenting unique challenges for development strategies.
  • Challenges Faced by PVTGs:
    • Marginalization: Isolation, low population, and distinct socio-economic traits result in limited access to basic services, social discrimination, and vulnerability to displacement.
    • Economic Struggles: Loss of traditional livelihoods, exploitation by middlemen, and lack of market knowledge for Non-Timber Forest Produce pose significant threats.
    • Political Underrepresentation: Limited political representation hinders their participation in decision-making processes.

Support Schemes for PVTGs:

  • Government Initiatives: The Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana, Integrated Tribal Development Project, Tribal Sub-Plan, and others aim at holistic development.
  • Legislation and Protection: Acts such as the Forest Rights Act 2006, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989, and Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996 provide legal safeguards.

PM-JANMAN's Approaches:

  • Identification of Challenges: PM-JANMAN addresses outdated criteria for PVTG recognition, emphasizing the need for proper identification through a Human Development Index.
  • Participatory Approach: Abandoning a uniform strategy, the initiative adopts a community-based approach, involving PVTGs in decision-making for land rights, social inclusion, and cultural preservation.
  • Livelihood Promotion: Focus on skills training, resource provision, and implementation of the Forest Rights Act ensures sustainable development while preserving cultural heritage.
  • Health, Nutrition, and Education: Tailored outreach strategies, cultural integration in education, and infrastructure development ensure accessibility in remote areas.
  • Infrastructure Development: Relaxing guidelines for schemes like Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, PM-JANMAN adopts a tola-based approach for development planning tailored to PVTGs' specific needs.

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