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28th December 2023 (9 Topics)

PM JANMAN

Context

Union Cabinet approved the Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM JANMAN), aimed at providing PVTG households and habitations with basic facilities.

Key Highlights

  • PM JANMAN aims to address the basic needs of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), encompassing housing, water, sanitation, education, health, connectivity, and livelihood opportunities.
  • Part of the Pradhan Mantri-PVTG Development Mission, the initiative allocates Rs.15, 000 crore over three years to uplift PVTG households and habitations.

PVTGs:

  • Originally termed Primitive Tribal Groups in 1960-61, PVTGs were identified for special attention due to disparities among Scheduled Tribes. The category was later renamed in 2006.
  • Encompassing 75 groups in 22,544 villages across 18 states and one Union Territory, PVTGs face challenges such as low literacy, pre-agricultural lifestyles, and subsistence economies.
  • Population sizes vary widely, from under 1,000 to over 1 lakh, presenting unique challenges for development strategies.
  • Challenges Faced by PVTGs:
    • Marginalization: Isolation, low population, and distinct socio-economic traits result in limited access to basic services, social discrimination, and vulnerability to displacement.
    • Economic Struggles: Loss of traditional livelihoods, exploitation by middlemen, and lack of market knowledge for Non-Timber Forest Produce pose significant threats.
    • Political Underrepresentation: Limited political representation hinders their participation in decision-making processes.

Support Schemes for PVTGs:

  • Government Initiatives: The Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana, Integrated Tribal Development Project, Tribal Sub-Plan, and others aim at holistic development.
  • Legislation and Protection: Acts such as the Forest Rights Act 2006, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989, and Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996 provide legal safeguards.

PM-JANMAN's Approaches:

  • Identification of Challenges: PM-JANMAN addresses outdated criteria for PVTG recognition, emphasizing the need for proper identification through a Human Development Index.
  • Participatory Approach: Abandoning a uniform strategy, the initiative adopts a community-based approach, involving PVTGs in decision-making for land rights, social inclusion, and cultural preservation.
  • Livelihood Promotion: Focus on skills training, resource provision, and implementation of the Forest Rights Act ensures sustainable development while preserving cultural heritage.
  • Health, Nutrition, and Education: Tailored outreach strategies, cultural integration in education, and infrastructure development ensure accessibility in remote areas.
  • Infrastructure Development: Relaxing guidelines for schemes like Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, PM-JANMAN adopts a tola-based approach for development planning tailored to PVTGs' specific needs.
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