• The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. 
  • It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, in partnership with other organisations and institutions.
  • GII Framework: 
  1. Sub-indices: The GII relies on two sub-indices—the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index—each built around key pillars.
  2. Pillars:  Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities: (1) Institutions, (2) Human capital and research, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Market sophistication, and (5) Business sophistication. Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs: (6) Knowledge and technology outputs and (7) Creative outputs.
  3. Sub-pillars and indicators: Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators (81 in total in 2017). Sub-pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of individual indicators; pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of sub-pillar scores.
Four measures are then calculated:
  • Innovation Input Sub-Index: is the simple average of the first five pillar scores
  • Innovation Output Sub-Index is the simple average of the last two pillar scores
  • The overall GII score is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices
  • The Innovation Efficiency Ratio is the ratio of the Output Sub-Index over the Input Sub-Index