The annual precipitation including snowfall, which is the main source of water in India, is about 4000 billion cubic meters (BCM). However, the average annual rainfall varies considerably from one region of the country to another. The North East region receives about 1000 cm and Western Rajasthan gets less than 10 cm of annual precipitation. Further, most of the rainfall occurs during the season of south-west monsoon in four months i.e. from June to September.
In view of limitations on availability of water resources and rising demand for water, sustainable management of water resources has acquired critical importance. NITI Aayog has developed a Composite Water Management Index as a useful tool to assess and further improve the performance in efficient management of water resources. The index would provide useful information for the States and also for the concerned Central Ministries/Departments enabling them to formulate and implement suitable strategies for better management of water resources.
The Index has a set of 28 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) covering irrigation status, drinking water and other water-related sectors. Critical areas such as source augmentation; major and medium irrigation; watershed development; participatory irrigation practices; sustainable on-farm water use practices; rural drinking water; urban water supply and sanitation; and policy & governance have been accorded high priority. The index would serve as a useful tool to track performance in the water sector and take corrective measures timely for achieving better outcomes thereby meeting the citizens’ expectations satisfactorily.
SECTORS PRIORITIZED FOR WATER MANAGEMENT INDEX
1) Source Augmentation (Restoration of Water Bodies)
2) Source Augmentation (Groundwater)
3) Major and Medium Irrigation - Supply Side Management
4) Watershed Development - Supply Side Management
5) Demand Side Management — Participatory Irrigation Practices
6) Demand Side Management — Sustainable on-form Water Use Practices
7) Rural Drinking Water
8) Urban Water Supply and Sanitation
9) Policy and Governance
Which of the following substances are found naturally in rocks or soils that lead to groundwater contamination?
a) Only 1
b) 1 and 3
c) 1 and 2
Exp: Some substances found naturally in rocks or soils, such as iron, manganese, arsenic, chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, or radionuclides, can become dissolved in ground water. Other naturally occurring substances, such as decaying organic matter, can move in ground water as particles.