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Pol. Science Optional by R.P Singh

  • Category
    Optional
  • Published
    2021-10-08 11:18:00
  • Evaluated
    Yes

Instruction:

  • Attempt One question out of the given two.
  • The test carries 15 marks.
  • Write Your answer in 150 words.
  • Any page left blank in the answer-book must be crossed out clearly.
  • After Writing the Answer upload your copy in JPEG format in the comment box.
  • Evaluated Copy will be re-uploaded on the same thread after 2 days of uploading the copy.
  • Discussion of the question and one to one answer improvement session of evaluated copies will be conducted through Google Meet with concerned faculty. You will be informed via mail or SMS for the discussion.

Question #1. Hobbes compromised individuality in creating Leviathan. But Locke balanced the individual sphere with that of the State. Discuss. 

Question #2. Emerging situation in Afghanistan has potential to rewrite power balancing in South Asia. Do you agree? Give reasons.

(Examiner will pay special attention to the candidate's grasp of his/her material, its relevance to the subject chosen, and to his/ her ability to think constructively and to present his/her ideas concisely, logically and effectively).

Model Answer

Question # 1. Hobbes compromised individuality in creating Leviathan. But Locke balanced the individual sphere with that of the State. Discuss.

Hints

Hobbes and Locke were first set of thinkers in liberal European tradition who propounded contractarian theory of state. Both created an artificial state on the basis of flaws in state of nature and by using theory of natural law.

However, both thinkers differed on many points but more so on scope of natural rights retained by contracting parties in political society. For Hobbes, primary agenda was removing fear and anarchy as justification for foundation of Leviathan, while for Locke, the issue at hand was to establish three wings of government to make human transactions more certain and accurate and predictable.

Thus, there is general agreement among political commentators that negative liberty in Hobbes stands compromised at the altar of unified and centralised sovereignty of state. But, Locke, remained true champion of “individuality” by creating a limited state and government with essential feature of “constitutionalism”.

At the end it can be said that Hobbes has been a subject of varied political interpretation and hence possibly most misunderstood of the above two thinkers. Quentin Skinner, for example, said that Hobbes never compromised autonomy of individuals because state only removes external circumstances of fear that prohibits moral and prudent human actions that every individual essentially possess.

 

Question # 2.Emerging situation in Afghanistan has potential to rewrite power balancing in South Asia. Do you agree? Give reason.

Hints

What happened in Afghanistan was inevitable. More than rise of Taliban, a terrorist organisation becoming a state formal, the withdrawal of USA has larger implications for south Asia.

At least for now the “power vacuum” in Afghanistan seems to have ebbed. Thus, power balancing in South Asia in now more embedded in “great game” of Indo Pacific region. USA has withdrawn itself from quagmire of Afghanistan, which is part of South Asia, and focus fully on countering China in Indo Pacific. First in person meeting of QUAD in September, 2021 and sudden announcement of AUKUS as military alliance between US, UK and Australia are cases in point.

India being a member of elitist group QUAD, means a historical opportunity that comes in a century to shape the global decision making on vital issues and protect the national interest. Indo-US partnership was never so close and never so crucial for security and stability in Indo Pacific area.

However, the enhanced leverage of a “deep state” Pakistan is also a matter of deep concern for national security of India. However, it will be too early to say that new Taliban government in Afghanistan will be as instrumental for Pakistani establishment to be used against India. China too is hoping to include Taliban regime in CPEC.

Thus, rise of Taliban has certainly gave to many possibilities of rebalancing in South Asia.

Note: You have to write your answers on an A4 size sheet leaving margins on both sides based on UPSC pattern. Mention Your Name on 1st page and Page Number on each page. After writing the answer, Click pictures of each page of the answer sheet and upload them altogether (in JPG/JPEG/PNG format) in the comment section of the same question.

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