- An extreme helium star or EHe is a low-mass supergiantthat is almost devoid of hydrogen, the most common chemical element of the universe.
- There are 21 of them detected so far in our galaxy. The origin and evolution of these Hydrogen deficient objects have been shrouded in mystery.
- Their severe chemical peculiarities challenge the theory of well-accepted stellar evolution as the observed chemical composition of these stars do not match with that predicted for low mass evolved stars.
Key-findings of the research
- The research which showed ?uorine abundances determined from singly ionized fluorine (F II) lines suggest a very high enrichment of ?uorine, about a factor of 100 to 10000 times higher than normal stars.
- Severe ?uorine enrichment w.r.t normal stars (of the order of 800 − 8000) was observed in the cool EHes along-with the cooler classical hydrogen de?cient stars, the RCB variables (R Coronae Borealis Stars) hinting at close evolutionary connection between them.
- The scientists explored the relationship of hot EHes (EHes having e?ective temperature ≥ 14000K), with the cooler EHes, based on their ?uorine abundance and spotted it in the former, thus establishing an evolutionary connection across a wide range of e?ective temperature.
- High-resolution echelle spectra of 10 hot EHes were obtained from Hanle Echelle Spectrograph (HESP) mounted on the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope at the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) in Hanle, Ladakh, (remotely operated by IIA) including data from McDonald Observatory, USA, and ESO archives.
- By comparing the observed ?uorine abundances with other abundances of the key elements, the scientists could determine the formation channels responsible for ?uorine enrichment.
- The varied range of observed ?uorine abundance across stars having similar atmospheric parameters points out the difference in the individual star’s evolution and the ensuing nucleosynthesis.
Particularly, the enrichment of ?uorine in the atmospheres of carbon-rich EHes and absence of the same in carbon-poor EHes suggest that ?uorine is profusely produced during the merger of a He-CO WD resulting in a carbon-rich EHe, whereas He-He WD merger that results in carbon-poor EHes does not account for ?uorine overabundance.
- Fluorine is an univalent poisonous gaseous halogen, it is pale yellow-green and it is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements.
- Fluorine readily forms compounds with most other elements, even with the noble gases krypton, xenon and radon.
- It is so reactive that glass, metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas.
Why Fluorine is important?
- Clues to evolution of extreme helium stars require accurate determinations of their chemical composition, and the peculiarities, if any, become very important.
- Fluorine plays a very crucial role in this regard to determine the actual evolutionary sequence of these hydrogen de?cient objects.
Significance of the findings
- Finding the formation: The findings make a strong case that the main formation of hot Extreme Helium Stars objects involves a merger of a carbon-oxygen (CO) and a Helium (He) white dwarf.
- Solving decade-old mystery: The detection of enhanced ?uorine abundances in the atmospheres of hot EHes solves a decade-old mystery about their formation. It ?rmly places hot EHes in an evolutionary sequence with cool EHes and other hydrogen-deficient stars and zeros in on the evolutionary scenario, which involves the merger of two double de-generate white dwarfs (WDs).
- A white dwarf is what starslike the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel.
- Near the end of its nuclear burning stage, this type of star expels most of its outer material, creating a planetary nebula.
- Only the hot core of the star remains. This core becomes a very hot white dwarf, with a temperature exceeding 100,000 Kelvin.
- Unless it is accreting matter from a nearby star (see Cataclysmic Variables), the white dwarf cools down over the next billion years or so.