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TERMS OF THE WEEK

Published: 8th Mar, 2024

S.No.

Term

About

1.        

Aadhaar Mitra 

  • Aadhaar Mitra is a chatbot launched by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to assist individuals with their Aadhaar-related queries.
  • It's essentially a virtual assistant readily available on the UIDAI website to answer your questions and offer various Aadhaar services.

2.        

Critical Mineral
  • The Ministry of Mines of India defines critical minerals as those minerals that are essential for economic development and national security.
  • These minerals are Antimony, Beryllium, Bismuth, Cobalt, Copper, Gallium, Germanium, Graphite, Hafnium, Indium, Lithium, Molybdenum, Niobium, Nickel, PGE, Phosphorous, Potash, REE, Rhenium, Silicon, Strontium, Tantalum, Tellurium, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium, Zirconium, Selenium and Cadmium.

3.        

Decarbonisation

  • Decarbonisation is the term used for removal or reduction of carbon dioxide output into the atmosphere. 

4.        

No-Confidence Motion

  • A no-confidence motion is a parliamentary process that allows the opposition to challenge the government's majority and ability to govern.

5.        

Parliamentary privileges
  • Parliamentary privileges can be divided into two broad categories:
    • Individual Privileges refers to the privileges enjoyed by the members individually
    • Collective Privileges refer to those which are enjoyed by the house as a collective body.

6.        

Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)
  • The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a nuclear reactor designed to generate electricity by using fast neutrons to convert uranium-238 into plutonium-239, which then undergoes fission to release energy.
  • It is a type of breeder reactor, it generates more power than it consumes and uses the nuclear waste -- Uranium-238.
  • India has been running a Fast Breeder Test Reactor experimental facility since 1985
7.         Middle-income countries (MICs)

According to the World Bank, middle-income countries (MICs) are defined as economies with a gross national income (GNI) per capita between $1,136 and $13,845 as of 2024. MICs consist of lower-middle-income countries and upper-middle-income countries,

8.        

Improvised Explosive Device (IED)


An IED is basically a home-made bomb. IEDs can be deployed using a vehicle, carried, placed, or thrown by a person, delivered in a package, or concealed on the roadside. IEDs are not simply used to kill and injure — they have often, especially in active war zones, been used as distractions.

9.        

Gross Value Added (GVA)

  • Gross Value Added (GVA) is the value that producers have added to the goods and services they have bought. 

10.    

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of any nation represents the sum total of gross value added (GVA) in all the sectors of that economy during the said year after adjusting for taxes and subsidies. 

GDP= GVA + taxes – subsidies

11.    

Body mass index (BMI)

  • BMI is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

12.    

Obesity

  • According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), obesity is an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that poses health risks.

13.    

Underweight

  • Underweight is one of the four broad sub-forms of undernutrition.
  • An adult is considered underweight if their BMI is less than 18 kg/m2. School-aged children and adolescents are considered underweight if their BMI is two standard deviations below the mean.

14.    

Trade distortion

  • Trade distortion is a situation where prices and production are higher or lower than levels that would usually exist in a competitive market.
  • As per WTO, nearly all domestic support measures are considered to distort such trade, but they are permitted to a certain limit called the ‘de minimis’ limit.

15.    

Ramsar Site

 

  • A Ramsar site is a wetland designated to be of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, an international environmental treaty signed on February 2, 1971 in Ramsar, Iran, under the auspices of UNESCO.

16.    

Central Asian Flyway

 

  • The Central Asian Flyway is a major migratory route for birds, covering 30 countries from the Arctic Ocean to the Indian Ocean.
  • A flyway is a geographical region within which a number of migratory bird species complete their annual cycle.
  • The annual cycle includes breeding, moulting, staging and non-breeding. 

1.        

Gender Disparity

It is discrimination on the basis of sex or gender causing one sex or gender to be routinely privileged or prioritized over another. 

2.        

Labour Force

Labour force refers to the part of the population which supplies or offers to supply labour for pursuing economic activities for the production of goods and services and, therefore, includes both employed and unemployed persons.

3.        

Government Security

Government securities are essential instruments in the financial market, serving as a means for the government to borrow funds and meet its fiscal requirements.

4.        

Fully accessible route (FAR) bonds

 FAR bonds are debt instruments that allow foreign investors to invest in specified government of India dated securities.

5.        

Bloomberg EM Local Currency Liquid Government Bond Index

It is a country-constrained index designed to provide a broad measure of the performance of liquid local currency emerging markets debt. It limits country exposure to a maximum of 10% and redistributes the excess market value index-wide on a pro-rata basis.

6.        

Carbon footprint

Carbon footprint, amount of carbon dioxide emissions associated with all the activities of a person or other entity.

7.        

Naval detachment

A naval detachment has administrative, logistics, and medical facilities.

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