Organized Crime

• Organized crime is defined as “those involved, normally working with others, in continuing serious criminal activities for substantial profit, elsewhere”. 

• Organized criminals that work together for the duration of a particular criminal activity or activities are what we call an organized crime group. Organized crime group structures vary.

• The core organized crime activity is the supply of illegal goods and services to countless numbers of citizen customers.  

• It employs illegitimate methods-monopolization, terrorism, extortion and tax-evasion to drive out or control lawful ownership and leadership, and to extract illegal profits from the public.

   • Types of Organized Crime

A. Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking: It is perhaps the most serious organised crime affecting the countryand is truly transnational in  character.  India is geographically situated  between  the  countries  of Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent and is a transit point for narcotic drugs produced in these regions tothe West, India also produces a considerable amount of licit opium, part of which also finds place in the illicit market in different forms. Illicit drug trade in India centres around five major substances, namely, heroin, hashish, opium, cannibas and methaqualone. 

B. Smuggling: Smuggling, which consists of clandenstineoperations leading to unrecorded trade, is another major economic offence. The volume of smuggling depends on the nature of fiscal policies pursued by the Government. 

C.  Money Laundering &Hawala: Money laundering means conversion of illegal and Ill-gotten money intoseemingly legal money so that it can be integrated into the legitimate economy. Besides, tax evasion and violation of exchange regulations play an important role in merging this ill-gotten money with tax evadedso as to obscure its origin. 

D.  Terrorism &Narco-Terrorism: Terrorism is a seriousproblem which India is facing. Conceptually, terrorism does not fall in the category of organized crime, as the dominant motive behind terrorism is political and/or ideological and not the acquisition of money-power. TheIndian experience, however, shows that the criminals are perpetrating all kinds of crimes, such as killings,rapes, kidnappings, gun-running and drug trafficking, under the umbrella of terrorist organizations.

E. Contract Killings: The offence of murder is punishableunder section 302 1PC by life imprisonment or death sentence. Conviction rate in murder cases is about 38%. The chance of detection in contract killings is quite low. The method adopted in contract killings is by engaging a professional gang for a monetary consideration.

F.  Kidnapping for Ransom: Kidnapping for ransom is ahighly organized crime in urban conglomerates. There are several local as well as inter-State gangs involved in it as the financial rewards are immense vis-a-vis the labour and risk involved.

G. Illegal-Immigration: A large number of Indians are working abroad, particularly in the duff region. Young people want to move to foreign countries for lucrative jobs. Large scale migration is fostered by the high rate of unemployment in the country and higher wage levels in foreign lands.  

H.  Prostitution: Trading in sex and girl-running is a very profitable business in which the underworld playsan important part.