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Basic Introduction
• Concept of environment
• Types of environment
• Concept of Biosphere
• Concept of Ecosystem
• Input and output of an ecosystem
• Components of ecosystem
• Characteristics of an ecosystem
• Food chains and food webs
• Trophic levels
• Ecological pyramids
• Laws related to ecology
• Geochemical Cycles

• What is biodiversity?
• Types of biodiversity
• Importance of biodiversity
• Causes of biodiversity loss
• Impact of the loss of biodiversity
• Ecologically Sensitive area

Biodiversity conservation
• Why it needed?
• In situ and ex situ conservation
• New technologies for conservation
• Economic incentives for conservation
• Role of government
• Role of NGOs
• People participation
• Community forest management
• Eco tourism
• Traditional methods of biodiversity conservation
• Initiatives in India

Water resource degradation
• Ocean resource degradation
• Groundwater degradation
• Surface water degradation
• Water management

Climate change and environment
• Introduction
• Causes
• Impact
• Initiatives
• Future initiatives
• Some new technologies to overcome climate change
• National treaties
• International treaties
• Analysis of treaties
• Country specific initiatives (some important)
• Disparity between developed and non developed on environment issues

Environment and urbanization
• Water degradation in urban areas
• Pollution in metros
• e-waste Management and Handling
• Disposal of untreated sewage
• Real estate boom and environment degradation
• Haphazard construction in hilly areas and impact
• Environment clearance and development issue
• Polythene bags and pollution
• Impact of tower radiation

Mining and environment
• Impact of mining on environmental degradation
• Go and No-Go policy of government
• Forest clearance issues
• Issue of displacement

Agriculture and environment
• Green revolution and its impact
• GM food and its impact
• Irrigation issues
• Contamination of land and water
• Desertification
• Deforestation

Renewable Energy
• Solar energy
• Hydro energy
• Tidal energy
• Wind energy
• Biomass
• Magnetohydrodynamics generator
• Fuel cell
• Geothermal energy
• Concept of green cities
• Hydrogen as a fuel
• Concept of green building
• Initiatives in India

Environmental impact assessment
• Meaning
• Process of EIA
• Process of EIA in India
• Organizations involved in EIA in India
• Advantages of EIA
• Economic development and EIA linkage
• Environment accounting
• Environment ethics

Concept of Sustainable Development
• What is sustainable development
• Parameters of Sustainable development
• Global and regional dimensions
• Sustainable agriculture
• Sustainable forest management
• Industrial waste management
• Water resource management
• Initiatives in India in 12th five year plan

GS Mains Syllabus Subtopic Listing