**UPSC Mains Syllabus for Physics Optional**

**PAPER - I**

**1.
a. Mechanics of Particles**: Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriol is accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler's laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass an laboratory reference frames.

Wave-particle duality; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals; Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.

Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom; L-S coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect; Frank Condon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.

Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas; Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear forces; Salient features of nuclear forces; Shell model of the nucleus - successes and limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion; Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors.

Classification of elementary particles and their interactions ; Conservation laws ; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electro weak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.

Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microcopies; Band theory of solids - conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism:para and ferro magnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; pn-p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and oscillators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan's laws, logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermostats, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.

- MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
- PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
- MEDICAL SCIENCE
- PHILOSOPHY
- SOCIOLOGY
- ECONOMICS
- ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE
- Botany
- Literature-Sanskrit
- Literature Urdu
- Literature-Telugu
- Literature Tamil
- Literature Sindhi
- Literature Punjabi
- Literature Oriya
- Literature Nepali
- Literature Marathi
- Literature Manipuri
- Literature Malayalam
- Literature Maithili
- Literature Hindi
- Literature Konkani
- Literature Kashmiri
- Literature Kannada
- Literature Gujarati
- Literature Dogri
- Literature Bodo
- Literature Bangali
- Literature Assamese
- Zoology
- Statistics
- Management
- Commerce and Accountancy
- Physics
- Geology
- Agriculture
- Geography
- Political Science
- Anthropology
- Mathematics
- Electrical Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Law

SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER