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  • Published
    6th Jan, 2023

Polity & Governance

Centre declares TRF terrorist organisation

The Resistance Front (TRF), a proxy of the Pakistan-based terror group Lashkar-e-Taiba, was declared a banned organisation.


  • The group came into existence in 2019 as a proxy of the banned Lashkar-e-Taiba, which was involved in numerous terror acts, including the 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks.
  • ‘Terrorist Organisation’ are banned under the provisions of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

Government measures to curb terrorism

  • Constitution of a Countering Financing of Terrorism Cell (CFT Cell) in the Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Constitution of a Terror Funding and Fake Currency Cell in the National Investigation Agency
  • India organised the third ‘No Money For Terror’ Ministerial Conference in New Delhi.


Science & Technology


World’s first vaccine for honeybees gets conditional nod in US

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has granted a conditional license for a vaccine for honeybees to curb American foulbrood (AFB), a fatal bacterial disease for the insect.


  • AFB is caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae.
  • Infected broods usually die at the pre-pupal or pupal stage. 
  • The disease cannot be cured, meaning that the destruction of infected colonies and hives or irradiation of infected material is the only way to manage AFB. 

The vaccine

  • Dalan Animal Health's vaccine for honeybees contains killed whole-cell Paenibacillus larvae bacteria
  • The vaccine technology exposes queen bees to inactive (ie, “dead”) bacteria, which enables the larvae hatched in the hive to resist infection.
  • The vaccine is mixed in queen candy — the primary food source for both the queen bees and the attendant bees living in cages. 



Endangered Asian elephant has lost most of its optimal habitat in Nilgiri Reserve: Study

As per a recent study, the endangered Asian Elephant has lost most of its “optimal” habitat: flat terrain that is easily negotiable in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR).

The Habitat

  • The Western Ghats is an escarpment running north–south along the western coastline of India, interrupted towards the south by the low-lying Palghat Gap that separates the northern from the southern elephant populations.
  • The northern part of the WG includes the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and its surrounding protected areas.
  • The Palghat Gap is a break in the Ghats that is relatively flat and consequently easily negotiable by elephants.
    • However, human settlements and crop cultivation have hindered the movement of the elephants, keeping them confined to the hilly areas.
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