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  • Published
    4th Nov, 2022

Black Sea Grain 

Black Sea Grain Initiative

Russia recently re-joined the Black Sea Grain deal.

About Black Sea Grain Initiative

  • The deal was brokered by the United Nations (UN) and Turkey.  
  • The deal was to provide for a safe maritime humanitarian corridor for Ukrainian exports (particularly for food grains) from three of its key ports, namely, Chornomorsk, Odesa and Yuzhny/Pivdennyi in the Black Sea. 
  • It aims to tackle rising food prices due to the geopolitical conflict.
  • Joint Coordination Centre (JCC): 
    • The deal put in place a Joint Coordination Centre (JCC), comprising senior representatives from Russia, Turkey, Ukraine and the UN for oversight and coordination.

All commercial ships are required to register directly with the JCC to ensure appropriate monitoring, inspection and safe passage. 



RISAT-2 makes uncontrolled reentry into earth’s atmosphere


RISAT-2, launched by Indian Space Research Organisation in 2009, made an uncontrolled re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere at the predicted impact point.


  • RISAT-2 is a Radar Imaging Satellite with all-weather capability.
  • Weighing only about 300 kg, the satellite made an uncontrolled re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere at the predicted impact point in Indian Ocean near Jakarta on October 30, ISRO said.
  • RISAT-2 Satellite carried 30 Kg fuel for an initial designed life of four years.
With the proper maintenance of orbit and mission planning by the spacecraft operations team in ISRO, by economical usage of fuel RISAT-2 provided very useful payload data for 13 years.

The Tongan Volcano Eruption

The Tongan Volcano Eruption Unleashed the Highest Plume on Record

The powerful January 15 underwater eruption of Tonga’s Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano in the South Pacific produced a plume that soared higher into Earth’s atmosphere than any other on record – about 57 km – researchers claimed.


  • The white-grayish plume unleashed by the eruption in the Polynesian archipelago became the first one documented to have penetrated a frigid layer of the atmosphere called the mesosphere.
  • The eruption happened just 65 kilometres from the Tongan capital of Nuku‘alofa.

Most of Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha‘apai lies under water. It rises more than 2,000 metres from the sea floor and is part of the Tonga–Kermadec volcanic arc. This string of mostly underwater volcanoes sits above a massive geological collision zone, where the western edge of the Pacific plate of Earth’s crust dives beneath the Indo–Australian plate. The edge of the Pacific plate heats up as it sinks into the planet’s depths, and molten rock rises to feed the volcanoes of the Tonga–Kermadec arc.

Rising Sun Water Fest

Meghalaya: Rising Sun Water Fest begins at Umiam lake

The much-anticipated sporting extravaganza ‘Rising Sun Water Fest 2022’ begins at Umiam Lake, Shillong, Meghalaya.

About ‘Rising Sun Water Fest’:

  • Organised by: Indian Army in association with the state government
  • Various watersport events and competitions such as rowing and sailing will be organized by the Army’s Eastern Command Aquatics Node (ECAN).
  • Many cultural programmes, exhibitions, helicopter shows, and food fests will be organized during the event.

About Umiam Lake:

  • Umiam Lake (locally known as Dam sait) is a reservoir in the hills 15 km (9.3 mi) north of Shillong in the state of Meghalaya, India.
  • It was created by damming the Umiam River in the early 1960s.
  • It is also used for storing water for electricity generation.
  • The lake serves as a major tourist attraction for the state of Meghalaya.
  • It is also a popular destination for water sports and adventure facilities.
  • Tourists visit this spot for kayaking, water cycling, scooting, and boating.
  • The lake also provides numerous ecosystem services at the micro, meso, and macro levels.
  • Due to the rising population of Shillong upstream of the lake, the lake is starting to become highly polluted.
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