UPSC SYLLABUS

Environment (Environment (Mains))

UPSC Syllabus

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.

Environment and Ecology: Basic Understanding

  • Introduction
  • Categories of Environment
  • Features of Environment
  • Components of Environment
  • Ecology

Ecosystem and Its Dynamics

  • Ecosystem Definitions
  • Properties of Ecosystem
  • Components of Ecosystem
    • Abiotic Factors
    • Biotic Factors
  • Ecosystem Dynamics

Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Gaseous Cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
  • Effects of High Concentration of Greenhouse Gases
    • Hydrological Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
    • Oxygen Cycle
  • Sedimentary Cycle
    • Sulphur Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle

Types of Ecosystems

  • Terrestrial Ecosystem
  • Aquatic Ecosystem
  • Changes in Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem Conservation
  • Ecology vs. Economy

Population Ecology

  • Population Characteristics
  • Population Growth Models
  • Species
  • Carrying Capacity of Earth           

Biosphere

  • Extent of the Biosphere
  • Working of the Biosphere
  • Importance of the Biosphere
  • Alpha, Beta, Gamma Diversity
  • Biomes
  • Global Biomes
    • Major Biomes of the World
    • WWF Classification of Biomes
    • Terrestrial Biomes
    • Aquatic Biomes
  • Indian Biomes

Biodiversity

  • Types of Biodiversity
  • Value of the Biodiversity
  • Threats to Biodiversity
    • Causes of Biodiversity losses (‘The Evil Quartet’)
    • Invasive species
    • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
  • Extinction of Species
  • Types - Natural, Mass, Anthropogenic
  • Causes of Extinction
  • Consequences of Extinction of Species

Biodiversity Conservation

  • Conservation Strategies
  • Conservation Tools
  • IUCN
  • IUCN Red List
  • Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESAs)
  • In-situ methods of conservation of biodiversity
    • Advantages of In-situ Conservation
    • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
  • Ex-situ Methods of Conservation of Biodiversity

Pollution & Degradation

  • Land Degradation
    • Causes and Impact of Land Degradation
    • Desertification
    • Sustainable Land Management
    • Soil Erosion
    • Problems due to Excessive Irrigation
    • Soil Conservation
  • Air Pollution
    • Causes of Air Pollution
    • Harmful Effects of Common Air Pollutants
    • Control of Air Pollution
  • Marine Pollution
    • Effects of Marine Pollution
    • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011
  • Mining & Pollution
    • Effects of Mining on Environment
    • Concept of Sustainable Mining
    • Acts to regulate the adverse effects of Mining Activities
  • Other Pollution
    • Effects of Noise Pollution on Human Health
    • Harmful Effects from Biological Contaminants
    • Harmful Effects of Radioactive Pollution
    • Nuclear Accidents
  • Water Degradation
    • Measurement of Water Pollution
    • Harmful Effects of Water Pollution
    • Delhi Pollution

Waste Management

  • Solid Waste Management
    • Salient features of SWM Rules, 2016
  • e-waste Management
    • Pollutants and their Health Impacts
    • Importance of the E-Waste Management
    • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2016
  • Biomedical Waste
    • Hazards Associated with Waste Management
    • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
  • Hazardous Waste
    • Hazardous Waste Treatment
    • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016

Climate Change

  • Factors Affecting Climate Change
  • Impact of climate change & its mitigation
  • Climate Change Management
    • Conventions
    • International Organisations

Environmental Impact Assessment Sustainable Practices

  • Impact of Agriculture on Environment
    • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Sustainable Agriculture
    • Hi-tech Farming Methods
    • Rain Water Harvesting
    • Green Buildings and their Rating System in India
  • Eco-tourism - Advantages & Disadvantages of Eco-tourism

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