UPSC SYLLABUS

Environment (Environment (Prelims))

Environmental Ecology

  • Origin of Life forms
    • Origin of Life forms
    • Life on earth
  • Basic Concepts of Ecology
    • Types of Ecology
    • Ecological Hierarchy
    • Scope of Ecology
    • Habitat & Ecological Niche
    • Deep vs Shallow Ecology
    • Ecological Principles
    • Ecological Community
      • Structure and Characteristics of a Community
      • Stratification
      • Ecotone
      • Ecological Dominance
      • Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation
      • Periodicity
      • Turnover
      • Interdependence
    • Ecological Succession
      • Types and Process of Succession
      • Climax Community
    • Range of Tolerance , Maximum Range
    • Difference between Ecology , Environment and Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem functions
    • Ecosystem Definitions
    • Functions and Properties of Ecosystem
    • The Structure/Components of Ecosystem
      • Abiotic Components
      • Biotic Components
    • Ecosystem Dynamics
      • Flow of Energy in Ecosystem
      • Trophic Levels
      • Food Chain
      • Types & Significance of Food Chain
      • Food Web
      • Models for Energy Flow
      • Ecological Productivity
      • Ecological Pyramid
    • Biomagnifications
    • Biological Control
  • Population Ecology
    • Types of species
    • Population Ecology
    • Population Growth Models
    • Methodology of Tiger census
    • Methodology of Lion Census
  • Adaptation of Species and Interactions
    • Adaptation
      • Examples of adaptation in plants
      • Examples of Adaptations in animals
    • Homeostasis
    • Interaction between Species
    • Ecotone
    • Endemic Species
    • Keystone Species
    • Indicator Species
    • Invasive Species
    • Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • Terrestrial ecosystem
    • Forest Ecosystem in India
    • Grasslands
    • Tundra
    • Deserts
    • Mountains
  • Aquatic Ecosystem
    • Aquatic ecosystem
    • Factors affecting the productivity of aquatic ecosystems
    • Fresh water ecosystem
    • Marine ecosystem
    • Marine Organisms
    • Plankton
    • Phytoplankton
    • Factors Affecting Phytoplankton Biodiversity
      • Importance of phytoplankton
      • Zooplankton
      • Sea-grass
      • Seaweeds
    • Human Modified Ecosystems
  • Nutrient Cycling
    • Concept of Biogeochemical Cycle
      • Parts of a Biogeochemical Cycle
      • Types of Biogeochemical Cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
      • Steps in the carbon cycle
      • Carbon cycle: Long term and Short term
      • Carbon act as Climate Buffer
      • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
      • Effects of high concentration of Greenhouse Gases
    • Hydrological Cycle
      • Different Steps of the Hydrologic Cycle
      • Storage
    • Nitrogen Cycle
      • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
    • Oxygen Cycle
    • Sulphur Cycle
      • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle
      • Human Influence on Phosphorus Cycle

Biodiversity

  • Basics of Biodiversity
    • Biodiversity
    • Types of biodiversity
    • Patterns of biodiversity
    • Bio-geographical classification of World
    • Bio-geographical classification of India
    • Functions of biodiversity
    • Hotspots of biodiversity
    • Bio informatics
    • Eco Regions
    • Role of Traditional Knowledge in Biodiversity
    • Biopiracy
  • Animal and Plant Diversity
    • Plant and Animal Kingdom
      • Marine Mammals
      • Egg laying Mammals
      • Marsupials
    • Threats to biodiversity
      • Causes of Biodiversity losses
      • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
      • Extinction of species
      • Mass Extinction
      • IUCN Red List and Classification Scheme
    • Biodiversity Conservation
      • Scheduled Animals in the Wildlife Protection Act
      • In-situ methods of Conservation
        • Protected Area Categories
        • Forms of Protected Areas
        • Biosphere reserves
        • Sacred forests and sacred lakes
        • World Heritage sites
        • Geo-heritage sites
        • Advantages of In-situ conservation
        • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
      • Ex-situ methods of Conservation
        • Advantages of ex-situ preservation:
        • Disadvantages of Ex-situ conservation
      • Zoological Parks
      • Botanical Gardens
      • Seed banks
    • National Parks
    • Wildlife Sanctuaries
    • Biosphere Reserves
    • Species based conservation programmes
      • Project Tiger
      • Project Elephant
      • Project Snow Leopard
      • Vulture conservation project
      • Crocodile conservation project
      • Ganges dolphin project
      • Indian Rhino Vision
      • Other projects
      • India adopts SAWEN
    • Important Coastal and marine Biodiversity Areas
    • Global initiative
      • State of Protected Areas in the World
      • MAB – Man and Biosphere Programme
      • World network of Biosphere Reserves
      • Biodiversity Hotspots
      • CBD – Convention of Biological Diversity
      • Cartegana Protocol
      • Nagoya Protocol
      • Aichi Biodiversity Diversity
    • Estuaries
      • What are estuaries?
      • Types of Estuaries
      • Importance of estuaries
      • Threats to estuaries
      • Major Estuaries in Indian coastal states
      • Monitoring and Prediction of Health of Estuarine and Coastal Waters
      • Difference between Lagoon and Estuary
      • Estuary ecosystem: Adaptations made in organisms
      • Conservation of Estuaries
    • Mangroves
      • What are mangroves?
      • Mangroves in India
      • Importance of Mangroves
      • Mangroves under threats
      • Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection
      • Community based mangrove regeneration
    • Coral Reef
      • About coral reefs
      • What do corals feed on?
      • Geographical Conditions
      • Types Of Coral Reefs
      • Uses of coral reefs
      • Concept of Bio-rock reefs
      • Threats to Coral reefs
      • Conservation of coral reef
    • Wetlands
      • What are wetlands?
      • Types of wetlands
      • Wetlands in India
      • Importance of wetlands
      • Threats to wetland ecosystems
      • Conservation of Wetlands
      • About Ramsar Convention ‘
      • About Asian Water bird Census

Resource Degradation & Management

  • Land Resource
    • Causes of land degradation
    • Impact of land degradation
    • Desertification
    • Sustainable Land Management
  • Forest Resource
    • Definition of forests by FSI
    • Types of Forest Cover
    • Forest Survey of India (FSI report 2017)
    • Types of Forests In India
    • Deforestation
    • Causes of Deforestation
    • Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India
    • Strategies for Reducing Deforestation
    • Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests
  • Soil Resource
    • Soil Characteristics and Soil formation process
    • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
    • Soil Forming Processes
    • Soil Profiles and Horizons
    • Type of Soils
    • Soils in India
    • Soils in World
    • Soil Erosion
    • Problems due to excessive irrigation
    • Soil Conservation
    • Soil health card scheme
    • Organic Farming
  • Water Pollution
    • Surface Water Resource
    • Ground Water Resources
    • Sources of Water Pollution
    • Measurement of Water pollution
    • Causes of Water Pollution
    • Harmful effects of water pollution
    • Other terms associated with water pollution
      • Algal Bloom
      • Eutrophication
      • Arsenic contamination of water
      • Mercury Pollution
      • Oxygen Stratification
    • Energy Resources
      • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
      • Tidal Energy
      • Wave energy
      • Fuel Cell
      • Microbial fuel cell
      • Biofuels
      • Biogas
      • Geothermal Energy
      • Solar Energy
      • New Energy Resources
      • Renewable Energy and Development
      • Petroleum Conservation Research Association
      • Atomic Energy Bill
      • Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill
      • National Electric Mobility Mission Plan        
      • National Policy on Biofuels
      • Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme
      • Solar Renewable purchase Obligation
      • Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell
      • New Energy Policy
      • Energy Organisation

Environmental Pollution

  • Basics of Pollution
    • Sources of pollution
      • Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment
      • Effect of Housing on Environment
      • Effect of Power Generation on Environment
      • Effect of River Valley Projects (Water Resource Projects) on Environment
      • Effect of Mining on Environment
      • Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment
      • Effect of Tourism on Environment
    • Classification of pollutants
    • Pollution Indicator species
  • Mining and Pollution
    • Mining and Environment
    • Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining
    • Impact of Mining
    • Indirect Impact of Mining
    • International Laws on Mining
    • Main Act or Statue to regulate the impact of
    • Indian Mining Sector
    • Sustainable Mining
  • Air Pollution
    • Causes of air pollution
    • Harmful Effects of air pollution
    • Top-ten gases in air pollution
    • Control of Air Pollution
    • Concepts related to Air pollution
      • Smog and its impact
      • Ozone depletion
      • Acid rain
      • Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM)
      • Fly Ash
      • Bharat stage Norm
      • National Air Quality Index
      • Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index
    • Marine Pollution
      • Sources of marine pollution
      • Effects of marine pollution
      • Concept of dead zone
      • Concept of Ocean acidification
      • Oil spill
      • Trash and Other Debris in ocean
      • Microplastics and its impact
      • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011               
    • Noise Pollution
      • Causes of Noise pollution
      • Noise Levels
      • Effects of Noise Pollution on human health
      • Corrective actions
    • Biological Pollution
      • Sources of biological pollution
      • Harmful effects from biological contaminants
      • Corrective actions
    • Radioactive Pollution
      • Sources of Radioactive Pollution
      • Harmful effects of Radioactive Pollution
      • Corrective actions
    • Thermal Pollution
      • Causes of Thermal Pollution
      • Effect of Thermal Pollution
      • Control of Thermal Pollution
    • Waste Management
      • Solid waste management
        • Types of Solid Waste
        • What is solid waste management?
        • Issues in solid waste management in India
        • Waste Management Practices
        • Technologies for the Generation of Energy from Waste
        • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
        • Salient features of SWM Rules, 2016
      • E-Waste Management
        • Pollutants and their health impacts
        • E-waste status in India
        • Importance of the E-waste management
        • Steps taken for combating mounting E-Waste
        • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2016
      • Biomedical Waste Management
        • Hazards associated with waste management
        • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
      • Hazardous waste and its Characteristics
      • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Trans-boundary Movement) Rules, 2016
      • Treatments Methods in Waste Management
        • Methods for sewage treatment
        • Treatments Methods for waste management
      • Hazardous waste treatement

Climate Change

  • Climate Change Basics
    • What is Climate Change?
    • What is Global warming?
    • Factors Affecting Climate Change
    • Causes of climate change
      • Extra-Terrestrial Sources of Climate Change
      • Terrestrial Sources of Climate Change
      • Anthropogenic sources of Climate Change
    • Urbanization and climate change
      • Pollution in metros and climate change
      • Real estate boom and environment degradation
      • Urban Heat Island
      • Polythene bags and pollution
      • Methane generation from waste
    • Impact of agriculture on climate
      • Agriculture increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions
      • Monoculture practice impacts biodiversity
      • Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers
      • Soil-related effects
      • Fertilizer’s Effect on the Environment
      • Impact of livestock on environment
      • Impact of use of Pesticides on environment
      • Impact of GM crop on environment
      • Emission of Methane from agricultural practices
      • Sustainable Agriculture Techniques
      • What is greenhouse effect?
    • Non green House Gases and Aerosols
    • Radioactive forcing and global warming
    • Ecological footprint
    • Carbon footprint
    • Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • Climate Change Impact
    • Impacts of the Climate Change
      • Acid Rain
      • El Nino
      • La Nina
      • Ozone Depletion
      • Ocean Acidification
    • Global Warming & Health
      • Health impacts of global warming
      • Mosquito-borne diseases
      • Ozone depletion and human health
    • Climate change mitigation
      • Carbon Sequestration
      • Carbon Sink
      • Carbon Credit
      • Carbon Tax

Environmental Governance

  • Acts and Policies
    • Constitutional Provisions related to environment
    • Wildlife Protection Act 1972
    • Environmental Protection Act
    • National Forest Policy
    • Biological Diversity Act 2002
    • Schedule Tribes and Other Forest
    • Dwellers Act 2006
    • Coastal Regulation Zone
    • Wetland Rules 2010
    • National Green Tribunal
    • Ozone Depleting Substance Rules
  • Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
    • What is EIA?
    • Brief History of EIA in India
    • EIA Process in India
    • The 8 steps of the EIA process             
    • Environmental Appraisal Process
    • Drawback in EIA Process
    • Recommendations for Improvement
    • Environment Management
    • EIA in India – Sectorial Analysis
      • Mining Sector
      • Agricultural Sector
      • Industrial Sector
    • International Environmental Governance
      • UNEP
      • UNDP
      • Centre for Biological Diversity
      • WWF for Nature
      • IUCN - Red List                                      
      • Birdlife International
      • International Conventions / Protocols & their Objectives
      • Sustainable Development Goals
      • Various Indices relate to Environment
      • Climate Change Governance
        • United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
        • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
        • Montreal Protocol and Kigali Agreement
        • The Earth Summit: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janerio, 1992
        • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
        • Rio Declaration: 1992
        • Agenda 21:1992
        • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
        • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
        • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): 1992
      • Global Climate Finance Architecture
    • India and Climate Change
      • India’s Position with regards to policy on Climate Change
      • Observed Climate and Weather Changes in India
      • NAPCC
      • Indian Climate Change Assessement
      • Indian Policy Structure Relavant to GHG Emissions
    • Environment related Institutions in India
      • Pollution Control Boards
      • National Green Tribunal
      • National Board for Wildlife
      • Animal Welfare Board
      • Central Zoo Authority
      • National Biodiversity Authority
    • Environmental schemes in India
      • National Wildlife Action Plan
      • CAMPA
      • Joint Forest Management
      • Social Forestry
      • National Bamboo Mission
      • National Action Plan on Climate Change
      • National Solar Mission
      • Ganga Rejuvenation Plan
      • Benefits of River Ganga
        • Facts about Ganga River Pollution and its impacts
      • Ecomark Scheme
      • Swachch Bharat Mission
      • Swachch Bharat Kosh
      • Grants in Aid Scheme
      • National Afforestation Program
      • National River Conservation Plan
      • National Mission for Clean Ganga
      • National Air Quality Index (AQI)
      • National Action Programme to Combat  Desertification
      • Pradhan Mantri Sauchalay Yojana
      • UJALA Scheme
      • Bharat Stage Norms
      • Corporate Social Responsibility and Environment Protection
    • APPENDIX
      • National Parks
      • Tiger Reserves of India
      • Elephant Reserves in India
      • Mike Sites in India
      • Biosphere Reserves
      • Biosphere Reserves in UNESCO’s Map List
      • Ramsar Wetland Sites
      • Natural World Heritage Sites
      • List of Sacred Groves
      • Mangrove Sites in India
      • Pollution
        • Key activities and Likely Associate Air Pollutants
        • Respiratory Irritants and Toxic Chemicals
      • Recent Developments
        • Mobile Tower Radiation
        • Shrinking of Cauvery Delta
        • Use of Garbage to Construct Road
        • Moss as Pollution Monitor
        • Graded Plan for Air Pollution
        • Air Quality Index
        • Polluter Pay Principle
        • Pesticide Poisoning
        • Aerosols
        • Anti-Smog guns
        • Particulate matter
        • Nalanda Model of Water Conservation
        • Wetland Rules, 2017
        • Permaculture and Monoculture
        • Sand Mining Guidelines
        • Coastal Erosion (Parali Island)
        • Bottom Trawling to Deep Sea Fishing
        • ‘Wadi’ Model
        • Re-greening of Village Commons Project
        • Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage
        • Namami Ganga Programme                
        • River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016
        • Smart Ganga City Scheme
        • Ganga Task Force
        • Ganga, Yamuna termed ‘living persons’
        • National Capacity Building Project for Waste Management
        • NGT Bans Plastic
        • Mission Innovation
        • Tribunal – Dumping Waste in Ganga
        • Ease in Norms for Sewage Plants
        • Organic Waste to Make Green Fuel
        • New Technologies for Waste Management
        • Melting of Antarctic Iceberg
        • Melting of Gangotri Glacier
        • Carbon Capture
        • Black Carbon
        • 30th Montreal Protocol and World Ozone Day
        • El-Nino Caused Record CO2 Spike
        • Glaciers in Asia to sink
        • Tropics emit more Carbon
        • Climate change impact on Natural Heritage Sites - Impact on Sunderbans
        • Marine Diversity in Antarctica under threat
        • Carbon Credit
        • 2nd Kyoto Protocol
        • Green Metro System
        • Negative Emissions
        • Geo-engineering Climate Change
        • Sequestering CO2
        • Bonn Challenge
        • COP-23
        • Air Quality Index likely to be added to ‘playing condition”
        • HFCs - India to eliminate use by 2030
        • Kigali agreement
        • Carbon Neutrality Concept
        • Marrakesh Climate Change Conference
        • International Solar Alliance (ISA)
        • Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20)
        • Climate Change Performance Index

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