UPSC SYLLABUS

Environment (Environment (Prelims))

Subjects

  • Maths
  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • Environmental Ecology

    • Origin of Life forms
      • Origin of Life forms
      • Life on earth
    • Basic Concepts of Ecology
      • Types of Ecology
      • Ecological Hierarchy
      • Scope of Ecology
      • Habitat & Ecological Niche
      • Deep vs Shallow Ecology
      • Ecological Principles
      • Ecological Community
        • Structure and Characteristics of a Community
        • Stratification
        • Ecotone
        • Ecological Dominance
        • Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation
        • Periodicity
        • Turnover
        • Interdependence
      • Ecological Succession
        • Types and Process of Succession
        • Climax Community
      • Range of Tolerance , Maximum Range
      • Difference between Ecology , Environment and Ecosystem
    • Ecosystem functions
      • Ecosystem Definitions
      • Functions and Properties of Ecosystem
      • The Structure/Components of Ecosystem
        • Abiotic Components
        • Biotic Components
      • Ecosystem Dynamics
        • Flow of Energy in Ecosystem
        • Trophic Levels
        • Food Chain
        • Types & Significance of Food Chain
        • Food Web
        • Models for Energy Flow
        • Ecological Productivity
        • Ecological Pyramid
      • Biomagnifications
      • Biological Control
    • Population Ecology
      • Types of species
      • Population Ecology
      • Population Growth Models
      • Methodology of Tiger census
      • Methodology of Lion Census
    • Adaptation of Species and Interactions
      • Adaptation
        • Examples of adaptation in plants
        • Examples of Adaptations in animals
      • Homeostasis
      • Interaction between Species
      • Ecotone
      • Endemic Species
      • Keystone Species
      • Indicator Species
      • Invasive Species
      • Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
    • Terrestrial Ecosystems
      • Terrestrial ecosystem
      • Forest Ecosystem in India
      • Grasslands
      • Tundra
      • Deserts
      • Mountains
    • Aquatic Ecosystem
      • Aquatic ecosystem
      • Factors affecting the productivity of aquatic ecosystems
      • Fresh water ecosystem
      • Marine ecosystem
      • Marine Organisms
      • Plankton
      • Phytoplankton
      • Factors Affecting Phytoplankton Biodiversity
        • Importance of phytoplankton
        • Zooplankton
        • Sea-grass
        • Seaweeds
      • Human Modified Ecosystems
    • Nutrient Cycling
      • Concept of Biogeochemical Cycle
        • Parts of a Biogeochemical Cycle
        • Types of Biogeochemical Cycle
      • Carbon Cycle
        • Steps in the carbon cycle
        • Carbon cycle: Long term and Short term
        • Carbon act as Climate Buffer
        • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
        • Effects of high concentration of Greenhouse Gases
      • Hydrological Cycle
        • Different Steps of the Hydrologic Cycle
        • Storage
      • Nitrogen Cycle
        • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
      • Oxygen Cycle
      • Sulphur Cycle
        • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
      • Phosphorus Cycle
        • Human Influence on Phosphorus Cycle

    Biodiversity

    • Basics of Biodiversity
      • Biodiversity
      • Types of biodiversity
      • Patterns of biodiversity
      • Bio-geographical classification of World
      • Bio-geographical classification of India
      • Functions of biodiversity
      • Hotspots of biodiversity
      • Bio informatics
      • Eco Regions
      • Role of Traditional Knowledge in Biodiversity
      • Biopiracy
    • Animal and Plant Diversity
      • Plant and Animal Kingdom
        • Marine Mammals
        • Egg laying Mammals
        • Marsupials
      • Threats to biodiversity
        • Causes of Biodiversity losses
        • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
        • Extinction of species
        • Mass Extinction
        • IUCN Red List and Classification Scheme
      • Biodiversity Conservation
        • Scheduled Animals in the Wildlife Protection Act
        • In-situ methods of Conservation
          • Protected Area Categories
          • Forms of Protected Areas
          • Biosphere reserves
          • Sacred forests and sacred lakes
          • World Heritage sites
          • Geo-heritage sites
          • Advantages of In-situ conservation
          • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
        • Ex-situ methods of Conservation
          • Advantages of ex-situ preservation:
          • Disadvantages of Ex-situ conservation
        • Zoological Parks
        • Botanical Gardens
        • Seed banks
      • National Parks
      • Wildlife Sanctuaries
      • Biosphere Reserves
      • Species based conservation programmes
        • Project Tiger
        • Project Elephant
        • Project Snow Leopard
        • Vulture conservation project
        • Crocodile conservation project
        • Ganges dolphin project
        • Indian Rhino Vision
        • Other projects
        • India adopts SAWEN
      • Important Coastal and marine Biodiversity Areas
      • Global initiative
        • State of Protected Areas in the World
        • MAB – Man and Biosphere Programme
        • World network of Biosphere Reserves
        • Biodiversity Hotspots
        • CBD – Convention of Biological Diversity
        • Cartegana Protocol
        • Nagoya Protocol
        • Aichi Biodiversity Diversity
      • Estuaries
        • What are estuaries?
        • Types of Estuaries
        • Importance of estuaries
        • Threats to estuaries
        • Major Estuaries in Indian coastal states
        • Monitoring and Prediction of Health of Estuarine and Coastal Waters
        • Difference between Lagoon and Estuary
        • Estuary ecosystem: Adaptations made in organisms
        • Conservation of Estuaries
      • Mangroves
        • What are mangroves?
        • Mangroves in India
        • Importance of Mangroves
        • Mangroves under threats
        • Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection
        • Community based mangrove regeneration
      • Coral Reef
        • About coral reefs
        • What do corals feed on?
        • Geographical Conditions
        • Types Of Coral Reefs
        • Uses of coral reefs
        • Concept of Bio-rock reefs
        • Threats to Coral reefs
        • Conservation of coral reef
      • Wetlands
        • What are wetlands?
        • Types of wetlands
        • Wetlands in India
        • Importance of wetlands
        • Threats to wetland ecosystems
        • Conservation of Wetlands
        • About Ramsar Convention ‘
        • About Asian Water bird Census

    Resource Degradation & Management

    • Land Resource
      • Causes of land degradation
      • Impact of land degradation
      • Desertification
      • Sustainable Land Management
    • Forest Resource
      • Definition of forests by FSI
      • Types of Forest Cover
      • Forest Survey of India (FSI report 2017)
      • Types of Forests In India
      • Deforestation
      • Causes of Deforestation
      • Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India
      • Strategies for Reducing Deforestation
      • Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests
    • Soil Resource
      • Soil Characteristics and Soil formation process
      • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
      • Soil Forming Processes
      • Soil Profiles and Horizons
      • Type of Soils
      • Soils in India
      • Soils in World
      • Soil Erosion
      • Problems due to excessive irrigation
      • Soil Conservation
      • Soil health card scheme
      • Organic Farming
    • Water Pollution
      • Surface Water Resource
      • Ground Water Resources
      • Sources of Water Pollution
      • Measurement of Water pollution
      • Causes of Water Pollution
      • Harmful effects of water pollution
      • Other terms associated with water pollution
        • Algal Bloom
        • Eutrophication
        • Arsenic contamination of water
        • Mercury Pollution
        • Oxygen Stratification
      • Energy Resources
        • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
        • Tidal Energy
        • Wave energy
        • Fuel Cell
        • Microbial fuel cell
        • Biofuels
        • Biogas
        • Geothermal Energy
        • Solar Energy
        • New Energy Resources
        • Renewable Energy and Development
        • Petroleum Conservation Research Association
        • Atomic Energy Bill
        • Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill
        • National Electric Mobility Mission Plan        
        • National Policy on Biofuels
        • Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme
        • Solar Renewable purchase Obligation
        • Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell
        • New Energy Policy
        • Energy Organisation

    Environmental Pollution

    • Basics of Pollution
      • Sources of pollution
        • Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment
        • Effect of Housing on Environment
        • Effect of Power Generation on Environment
        • Effect of River Valley Projects (Water Resource Projects) on Environment
        • Effect of Mining on Environment
        • Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment
        • Effect of Tourism on Environment
      • Classification of pollutants
      • Pollution Indicator species
    • Mining and Pollution
      • Mining and Environment
      • Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining
      • Impact of Mining
      • Indirect Impact of Mining
      • International Laws on Mining
      • Main Act or Statue to regulate the impact of
      • Indian Mining Sector
      • Sustainable Mining
    • Air Pollution
      • Causes of air pollution
      • Harmful Effects of air pollution
      • Top-ten gases in air pollution
      • Control of Air Pollution
      • Concepts related to Air pollution
        • Smog and its impact
        • Ozone depletion
        • Acid rain
        • Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM)
        • Fly Ash
        • Bharat stage Norm
        • National Air Quality Index
        • Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index
      • Marine Pollution
        • Sources of marine pollution
        • Effects of marine pollution
        • Concept of dead zone
        • Concept of Ocean acidification
        • Oil spill
        • Trash and Other Debris in ocean
        • Microplastics and its impact
        • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011               
      • Noise Pollution
        • Causes of Noise pollution
        • Noise Levels
        • Effects of Noise Pollution on human health
        • Corrective actions
      • Biological Pollution
        • Sources of biological pollution
        • Harmful effects from biological contaminants
        • Corrective actions
      • Radioactive Pollution
        • Sources of Radioactive Pollution
        • Harmful effects of Radioactive Pollution
        • Corrective actions
      • Thermal Pollution
        • Causes of Thermal Pollution
        • Effect of Thermal Pollution
        • Control of Thermal Pollution
      • Waste Management
        • Solid waste management
          • Types of Solid Waste
          • What is solid waste management?
          • Issues in solid waste management in India
          • Waste Management Practices
          • Technologies for the Generation of Energy from Waste
          • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
          • Salient features of SWM Rules, 2016
        • E-Waste Management
          • Pollutants and their health impacts
          • E-waste status in India
          • Importance of the E-waste management
          • Steps taken for combating mounting E-Waste
          • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2016
        • Biomedical Waste Management
          • Hazards associated with waste management
          • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
        • Hazardous waste and its Characteristics
        • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Trans-boundary Movement) Rules, 2016
        • Treatments Methods in Waste Management
          • Methods for sewage treatment
          • Treatments Methods for waste management
        • Hazardous waste treatement

    Climate Change

    • Climate Change Basics
      • What is Climate Change?
      • What is Global warming?
      • Factors Affecting Climate Change
      • Causes of climate change
        • Extra-Terrestrial Sources of Climate Change
        • Terrestrial Sources of Climate Change
        • Anthropogenic sources of Climate Change
      • Urbanization and climate change
        • Pollution in metros and climate change
        • Real estate boom and environment degradation
        • Urban Heat Island
        • Polythene bags and pollution
        • Methane generation from waste
      • Impact of agriculture on climate
        • Agriculture increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions
        • Monoculture practice impacts biodiversity
        • Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers
        • Soil-related effects
        • Fertilizer’s Effect on the Environment
        • Impact of livestock on environment
        • Impact of use of Pesticides on environment
        • Impact of GM crop on environment
        • Emission of Methane from agricultural practices
        • Sustainable Agriculture Techniques
        • What is greenhouse effect?
      • Non green House Gases and Aerosols
      • Radioactive forcing and global warming
      • Ecological footprint
      • Carbon footprint
      • Global Warming Potential (GWP)
    • Climate Change Impact
      • Impacts of the Climate Change
        • Acid Rain
        • El Nino
        • La Nina
        • Ozone Depletion
        • Ocean Acidification
      • Global Warming & Health
        • Health impacts of global warming
        • Mosquito-borne diseases
        • Ozone depletion and human health
      • Climate change mitigation
        • Carbon Sequestration
        • Carbon Sink
        • Carbon Credit
        • Carbon Tax

    Environmental Governance

    • Acts and Policies
      • Constitutional Provisions related to environment
      • Wildlife Protection Act 1972
      • Environmental Protection Act
      • National Forest Policy
      • Biological Diversity Act 2002
      • Schedule Tribes and Other Forest
      • Dwellers Act 2006
      • Coastal Regulation Zone
      • Wetland Rules 2010
      • National Green Tribunal
      • Ozone Depleting Substance Rules
    • Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
      • What is EIA?
      • Brief History of EIA in India
      • EIA Process in India
      • The 8 steps of the EIA process             
      • Environmental Appraisal Process
      • Drawback in EIA Process
      • Recommendations for Improvement
      • Environment Management
      • EIA in India – Sectorial Analysis
        • Mining Sector
        • Agricultural Sector
        • Industrial Sector
      • International Environmental Governance
        • UNEP
        • UNDP
        • Centre for Biological Diversity
        • WWF for Nature
        • IUCN - Red List                                      
        • Birdlife International
        • International Conventions / Protocols & their Objectives
        • Sustainable Development Goals
        • Various Indices relate to Environment
        • Climate Change Governance
          • United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
          • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
          • Montreal Protocol and Kigali Agreement
          • The Earth Summit: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janerio, 1992
          • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
          • Rio Declaration: 1992
          • Agenda 21:1992
          • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
          • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
          • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): 1992
        • Global Climate Finance Architecture
      • India and Climate Change
        • India’s Position with regards to policy on Climate Change
        • Observed Climate and Weather Changes in India
        • NAPCC
        • Indian Climate Change Assessement
        • Indian Policy Structure Relavant to GHG Emissions
      • Environment related Institutions in India
        • Pollution Control Boards
        • National Green Tribunal
        • National Board for Wildlife
        • Animal Welfare Board
        • Central Zoo Authority
        • National Biodiversity Authority
      • Environmental schemes in India
        • National Wildlife Action Plan
        • CAMPA
        • Joint Forest Management
        • Social Forestry
        • National Bamboo Mission
        • National Action Plan on Climate Change
        • National Solar Mission
        • Ganga Rejuvenation Plan
        • Benefits of River Ganga
          • Facts about Ganga River Pollution and its impacts
        • Ecomark Scheme
        • Swachch Bharat Mission
        • Swachch Bharat Kosh
        • Grants in Aid Scheme
        • National Afforestation Program
        • National River Conservation Plan
        • National Mission for Clean Ganga
        • National Air Quality Index (AQI)
        • National Action Programme to Combat  Desertification
        • Pradhan Mantri Sauchalay Yojana
        • UJALA Scheme
        • Bharat Stage Norms
        • Corporate Social Responsibility and Environment Protection
      • APPENDIX
        • National Parks
        • Tiger Reserves of India
        • Elephant Reserves in India
        • Mike Sites in India
        • Biosphere Reserves
        • Biosphere Reserves in UNESCO’s Map List
        • Ramsar Wetland Sites
        • Natural World Heritage Sites
        • List of Sacred Groves
        • Mangrove Sites in India
        • Pollution
          • Key activities and Likely Associate Air Pollutants
          • Respiratory Irritants and Toxic Chemicals
        • Recent Developments
          • Mobile Tower Radiation
          • Shrinking of Cauvery Delta
          • Use of Garbage to Construct Road
          • Moss as Pollution Monitor
          • Graded Plan for Air Pollution
          • Air Quality Index
          • Polluter Pay Principle
          • Pesticide Poisoning
          • Aerosols
          • Anti-Smog guns
          • Particulate matter
          • Nalanda Model of Water Conservation
          • Wetland Rules, 2017
          • Permaculture and Monoculture
          • Sand Mining Guidelines
          • Coastal Erosion (Parali Island)
          • Bottom Trawling to Deep Sea Fishing
          • ‘Wadi’ Model
          • Re-greening of Village Commons Project
          • Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage
          • Namami Ganga Programme                
          • River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016
          • Smart Ganga City Scheme
          • Ganga Task Force
          • Ganga, Yamuna termed ‘living persons’
          • National Capacity Building Project for Waste Management
          • NGT Bans Plastic
          • Mission Innovation
          • Tribunal – Dumping Waste in Ganga
          • Ease in Norms for Sewage Plants
          • Organic Waste to Make Green Fuel
          • New Technologies for Waste Management
          • Melting of Antarctic Iceberg
          • Melting of Gangotri Glacier
          • Carbon Capture
          • Black Carbon
          • 30th Montreal Protocol and World Ozone Day
          • El-Nino Caused Record CO2 Spike
          • Glaciers in Asia to sink
          • Tropics emit more Carbon
          • Climate change impact on Natural Heritage Sites - Impact on Sunderbans
          • Marine Diversity in Antarctica under threat
          • Carbon Credit
          • 2nd Kyoto Protocol
          • Green Metro System
          • Negative Emissions
          • Geo-engineering Climate Change
          • Sequestering CO2
          • Bonn Challenge
          • COP-23
          • Air Quality Index likely to be added to ‘playing condition”
          • HFCs - India to eliminate use by 2030
          • Kigali agreement
          • Carbon Neutrality Concept
          • Marrakesh Climate Change Conference
          • International Solar Alliance (ISA)
          • Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20)
          • Climate Change Performance Index
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