What's New :
IAS Foundation (Prelims + Mains) 2025-26. Batch Starts: 13th December. Get Details
Samarth - Answer Writing Skill Development Program. Get Details

History (Post Independence Consolidation (Mains))


  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • Challenges before India after Independence

    • Communal Riots and Regions most affected
    • Partition and then Independence: Punjab, Bengal and Assam, Sindh
    • Radcliff Commission and challenges before boundary commission
    • Radcliff Commission and its composition
    • Drawbacks of Commission
    • Division of sources
    • Finances
    • Defence personnel and equipment
    • Civil government
    • Assassination of Gandhi
    • Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Refugees
    • Shift to Constitutional Democracy

    The Indian States

    • Policy of Equal Federation (1935-1947)
    • Plan of consolidation
    • Integration of Princely States: Junagadh, Kashmir and Hyderabad
    • Aftermath of Integration
    • Goa and Pondicherry
    • Tribal Integration
    • Roots of India Tribal Policy
    • Reasons for dismal performance of Tribal Policy
    • Positive Development happened due to state’s Initiative since 1947
    • Issue of language
    • The Official Language
    • Features of Official Language Act

    Framing of the Constitution of India

    • Evolution of the Constitution and main provisions
    • Steps to the Constitution
    • Constitutional Developments
    • The Indian Constitution: Main Provisions
    • The Constituent Assembly
    • Formation of the Constituent Assembly
    • Compulsions and Issues in front of Assembly

    From Colony to Democracy

    • Challenge of building democracy
    • Challenges before ECI and conduction of first general election
    • Starting of one party dominance
    • Dominance of Congress System
    • Nature of Congress Dominance
    • 1967 elections
    • Split in the Congress
    • Emergence of Opposition Parties
    • Role of opposition parties
    • Various opposition parties

    Economic Consolidation

    • Economic Development and Planning
    • Ideas of Development
    • Planning
    • Formation of Planning Commission
    • First five year plan
    • Second five year plan
    • Achievements of Plans from 1947 to 1965
    • Key controversies regarding 5 year plans
    • Green Revolution
    • Prevailing Conditions before the introduction of Green Revolution
    • Initiatives prior to Green Revolution to boost Agriculture
    • Government’s other positive initiative during Green Revolution Period
    • Positive and negative impact of Green Revolution
    • Operation Flood and Cooperatives
    • Formation of Amul
    • Starting and impact of Operation Flood
    • Limitations of Co-operativization
    • Development of land reforms in India between 1947 and early 1960’s
    • Abolition of intermediaries
    • Tenancy reforms
    • Ceiling on land holdings
    • Bhoodan Movement
    • Aims and advantages of Bhoodan movement

    India’s External Relations

    • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
    • Strategic Issues
    • Features of Indian Foreign Policy
    • Emergence of NAM and its Summits
    • Organizational structure & membership
    • India and its neighbours
    • India and China
    • India and Pakistan (Indo-Pak War, Kargil War, Shimla Agreement, Tashkent Declaration and Agra Summit)
    • India and Bangladesh (Creation of Bangladesh)
    • India and Sri Lanka
    • India with Nepal and Bhutan
    • India’s relations with USA and USSR during cold war
    • Analysis of Nehruvian Foreign Policy

    The Crisis of Democratic Order

    • The JP movement and Emergency 1975-77: Testing of Indian democracy tested
    • Background to emergency (Economic context, Gujarat and Bihar movements, Conflict with Judiciary)                                                   
    • Declaration of emergency (Crisis and Response)
    • Controversies regarding emergency
    • Lessons from emergency
    • Politics after Emergency (LS elections 1977 and Janata Party)
    • The Opposition: Initial years of BJP
    • The Naxalite Movement
    • Communalism
    • Secularism and democracy
    • Ayodhya dispute: Demolition and after
    • Communalism and use of state power
    • Revival and growth of communalism
    • Anti-muslim riots in Gujarat
    • The Punjab Crisis
    • Operation Blue Star
    • Demand of Khalistan
    • Basis of Regionalism: Politics in the states
    • Roots of tension
    • Challenges of Regionalism
    • Tamil Nadu (Dravidian Movement), Andhra Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and J&K (external and internal disputes)                                                    
    • Secessionist movement in North-Eastern states
    • Accommodation and National Integration

    Popular Movements

    • Nature of Popular Movements
    • Environment Movements
    • Chipko Movement
    • Narmada Bachao Andalon (Sardar Sarovar Project, Debates and struggles)
    • Party based Movement and Non-party based movements
    • Caste, Untouchability, Anti-caste politics and strategies      
    • Issues of Dalit
    • Dalit panthers: Origin and their activities
    • Agrarian Struggles
    • Bharatiya Kisan Union: Growth and its characteristics
    • National Fish Worker’s Forum
    • Anti-Arrack Movement: Origin and its linkage
    • Indian Women since Independence
    • Lesson from popular movements

    Recent Developments in Indian Politics

    • Context of the 1990s
    • Era of Coalition
    • Decline of Congress
    • Alliance politics
    • Political Rise of other Backward Classes
    • Mandal Implemented: The Mandal Commission
    • Political fallouts
    • NEP-1991, LPG policy, Tax reforms, Privatisation, Globalisation and ICT
    • Nuclear policy
    • Emergence of new consensus
    • LS Elections 2004
    • Terrorist troubles and relations with Pakistan
    GS Mains Classes GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 GS Classes 2024 UPSC Study Material

    Verifying, please be patient.

    Our Centers

    DELHI (Karol Bagh)

    GS SCORE, 1B, Second Floor, Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. 8)

    Get directions on Google Maps

    BHUBANESWAR (Jaydev Vihar)

    GS SCORE, Plot No.2298, Jaydev Vihar Square, Near HCG Day Care, BBSR - 751013

    Get directions on Google Maps

    LUCKNOW (Aliganj)

    GS SCORE, 2nd Floor, B-33, Sangam Chauraha, Sector H, Aliganj, Lucknow, UP - 226024

    Get directions on Google Maps

    Enquire Now