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Polity & Governance (Executive, Judiciary, Legislature (Mains))


  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • UPSC Syllabus

    • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States
    • Issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure
    • Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
    • Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
    • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive
    • Ministries and Departments of the Government
    • Structure, organization and functioning of the Judiciary
    • Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions

    Issues And Challenges Pertaining to The Federal Structure

    • Union and its territory
      • Formation of state and Altercation of boundaries
    • Nature of Federal System
    • Peculiar features of Indian federalism
    • A Critique of the Federal System
      • Challenges of Nation building
      • Challenges Of Special Status State And Problems
    • Demand for New states: Gorkhaland, Nagalim, Vidharbha, Purvanchal etc.
    • Era of One-Party dominance
    • Regional aspirations
    • Emergency Provisions
      • Imposition of President Rule
      • Fundamental Rights during Emergency
    • Conversion of state to UT unilateraly by centre-A constitutional question

    Structure, organization and functioning of the Union executive

    • President
      • President of India – Discretionary Powers- Imposition of President’s rule
      • Is President a mere Rubber Stamp
    • Vice President
    • Prime Minister
    • Central Council of Ministers
    • Cabinet Committees

    Structure, organization and functioning of the State executive

    • Governor
      • Provisions related to removal of Governor (Article 156)
      • Discretionary Powers
      • Politicization of the Post of Governor
    • Chief Minister
    • State Council of Ministers


    • Parliament
      • Sessions of Parliament: Adjournment, Prorogation, Dissolution etc.
      • Lacunas in Parliamentary Functioning in India
      • When Does a Bill Lapse in Indian Parliament?
      • Types of Majorities Used in the Indian
      • Election to Rajya Sabha: The Procedure.
      • Relevance of Rajya Sabha
      • Government Budgeting: Indian Budget for
      • Budget Documents Made Simple: Key to Budget Documents.
      • Cut Motions: Policy Cut, Economy Cut, and Token Cut.
      • Misuse of Ordinance promulgation power
      • Office of the Speaker: Powers and Issues
      • Issue related to office of profit
      • Breach Of Privilege: Special privileges   to MP’s and its implications
    • Parliamentary Committees
      • Parliamentary Committees in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
      • Diminishing importance of parliamentary committees

    State Legislature

    • State Legislature
      • Full statehood to Delhi: Should it be granted or not?
      • Relevance of Council of State    

    Functions and responsibilities of the Union and States

    7th Schedule

    Separation of Power

    • Power Sharing
    • Centre-State Relations
      • Inter-State Council vs National Development Council.
      • Separate State Flag in Karnataka
      • NITI Aayog: The new ‘think-tank’ to replace Planning Commission.
    • Foreign Policy
    • States demand a say in Foreign Policy?

    Dispute Redressal Mechanisms And Institutions

    • Inter-State Relations
      • Inter-state River Water Dispute
      • Inter-state Councils
    • Parliamentary Forums
    • Parliamentary Groups
    • Administrative Tribunals
    • National Integration

    Devolution Of Powers And Finances Up to Local Levels And Challenges Therein

    • Local Governments
      • Nagaland Reservation in Urban Bodies
      • Education Qualification made mandatory for contesting Local Government Elections
    • Panchayati Raj and PESA 1996
    • Municipalities
      • in Municipalities in Sync with Urban Development Missions

    Structure, organization and functioning of the JUDICIARY

    • Higher Judiciary Appointments
      • Collegium system and issues.
      • Collegium Vs. NJAC
      • CJI removal
    • Judicial Review
    • Judicial Activism
      • Judicial activism and judicial Overreach
      • Judicial Accountability & RTI Act
    • Public Interest Litigation
      • Advocates (Amendment) Bill, 2017 Controversy
      • National Litigation Policy
    • Other Judicial Issues
      • All India Judicial Services
      • Proposal for National Court of Appeal
      • Judicial Pendency
      • Judicial Reforms
      • Problems with Tribunals, Problems arising out of sidestepping the HC
      • Alternate Dispute Redressal (ADR)
    • Major Judgements of Supreme Court
      • RIGHT TO CONVERT-the Supreme Court’s judgement regarding a person’s right to choose a religion, Issue of Religious  Conversion in India,
      • Reservation in promotion, Argument in favour of reservation in promotion, Argument against the reservation in  promotions
      • Supreme Court judgement on Caste, Religion in Polls
      • Validity of Aadhaar but with certain caveats
      • Cauvery River Verdict
      • Concept of Defamation in India
      • Should the SC proceedings be live streamed?
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