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Polity & Governance (Features Of Indian Polity & Constitution (Mains))


  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • UPSC Syllabus

    • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure
    • Separation of powers Fundamental Rights, Preamble, DPSP, Fundamental Duties, etc.
    • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
    • Salient features of RP Act.

    Historical Underpinning

    • Constitution: Why and How?
    • Historical Background


    • Constituent Assembly and its vision of future
    • Making of the Constitution
    • Constitution as a living document
    • Democracy and diversity
    • Outcomes of democracy
    • Crisis of Democratic order
    • National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution
    • Comparison of the Indian Constitutional scheme with that of other countries


    • Sources of the Constitution
    • Salient features of the Constitution
    • The Philosophy of the Constitution
    • System of Government: Parliamentary & Presidential System
    • Role of Convention under the Constitution
    • Comparison between Judicial Review and Parliamentary Supremacy


    • The Constitution Amendment of the Constitution
    • Keshvananda and Bharti Case Judgement
    • 42nd and 44th Amendment to the Constitution
    • The Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, 2019 (124th Constitution Amendment Bill) to provide 10% reservation in government jobs and educational  institutions to the economically weaker sections (EWS)
    • (125th Amendment) Bill, 2019

    Significant Provisions

    • Preamble of the Constitution
      • Debate : Is Preamble part of the Constitution and its amendment
    • Citizenship
      • National Register of Citizens
    • Fundamental Rights
      • Rule of Law
      • Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law
      • Exceptions to Fundamental Rights
      • Amenability of Fundamental Rights
      • Rights following from other provision  of the Constitution
    • Major Debates/ Issues around Fundamental Rights:
      • Limitations upon the Freedom
      • Freedom of Press and Censorship
      • Free Speech: Rights & Limits and Hate speech
      • Data protection: Privacy Vs. Innovation
      • RTI amendments
      • Sedition-Law- Comprehensive public discussion regarding Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code 1860
      • Right To Information Act 2005.
      • Defamation-Should it be decriminialised
      • ‘Living wills’/ Euthanasia
      • Restriction on the entry of women in places of worship
      • Reservation in India – Explained in Layman’s Terms
      • Reservation in promotion
      • Aadhaar and Privacy issues
      • Constitutionality of article 35A
    • Directive Principles of the State Policy
      • Scope of DPSP: Economic and Social Democracy
      • Implementation of Directives
      • Conflict between Fundamental Rights and role of judiciary in harmonizing them
      • Challenge of implementing Uniform civil code
    • Fundamental Duties
    • Union Territories
      • Chief Minister Vs Lieutenant Governor: Rules, Rights and Responsibilities
    • Special Status of Jammu and Kashmir
      • Kashmir Unrest
    • Special Provisions for some States
    • Scheduled and Tribal areas
    • Official Language
      • Reasons for the 58th Amendment

    Major Doctrines

    • Doctrine of Basic Structure of the Constitution
    • Doctrine of Harmonious Construction
    • Doctrine of Eclipse
    • Doctrine of Pith and Substance
    • Doctrine of Incidental or Ancillary Powers
    • Doctrine of Colourable Legislation
    • Doctrine of Severability
    • Doctrine of Territorial Nexus
    • Doctrine of Laches

    Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity

    • Pressure Groups
    • Popular Struggles and Movements
    • Rise of Popular movements

    Election & The Representatives of People’s Act

    • Political Parties
      • Criminalisation of politics
      • Freebies Politics in India
      • Issues Related to the Working of Political Parties
      • Inner Party Democracy
      • Significance of Strong Opposition in Democracy
    • Elections
      • Role of Civil Society in Free and Fair Election
      • What is Tactical Voting and Proportional Representation?
      • What is Absentee Ballot?
    • Voting Behaviour
    • Election Laws
      • Representation of People (Amendment) Bill 2010- Voting rights to NRI
      • Introduction of NOTA
      • Bill on Right to Recall Legislators
    • Electoral reforms
      • Demand For A Hybrid Electoral System
      • Simultaneous Elections
      • About Paper Trail units
      • Election Funding (Electoral bonds) Corporate funding laws
      • State Funding in elections
      • Women voices in elections
      • Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms
    • Anti-Defection Law
      • Anti-Defection Law: Is it time for reconsideration?

    Development Processes and the Development Industry

    • The role of NGOs
      • NGOs and Development/ Crackdown on NGOs
      • Accountability and transparency in NGOs
    • SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

    Major Issues

    • Dalit assertion and Politics of reservation
    • Should India spend more on science or Social welfare?
    • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005
    • Agrarian crisis: Issues in farmer economy
    • Issues related to Social Media
    • Media freedom and Responsible reporting
    • Marital rape
    • Section 377: Constitutionality Vs Morality
    • Legalising Sports Betting In India

    Mechanism, laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

    • Special Provisions relating to Certain Classes
      • Muslim Personal law: Polygamy/ Triple talaq
    • Scheduled and Tribal Areas
      • SC/ST Act judgment: Protecting the innocent or diluting the Protection?
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