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Economy (Policy & Reforms In Indian Economy (Mains))


  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • UPSC Syllabus

    • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, growth, development and unemployment
    • Mobilization of resources
    • Government Budgeting.
    • Investment models.
    • Financial and Money Market
    • Inflation
    • Direct and Indirect taxes
    • Inclusive growth & issues arising from it.

    Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning

    • Role and objectives of Indian Planning
    • Planning Experience at the Centre and State level.
    • Regulatory Role of the State
    • Development Strategy in India’s Five Year Plan
    • Mahalanobis’ Four-Sector Growth Model and Employment Generation
    • Tackling the Problems of Poverty and Unemployment
    • Vital Role of the Public Sector
    • Analysis of India’s Economic Performance in Development Planning
    • Trends in Saving and Capital Formation since Independence
    • Role of NITI Aayog in Cooperative federalism

    Resource Mobilization

    • Types of Resources: Physical and Financial
    • Need for Resource Mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State policies
    • Sources of Resource Mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector
    • Taxation and Mobilization of Resources for Economic Growth
    • Direct Taxes and Mobilisation of Resources
    • Agricultural Taxation & Resource Mobilisation
    • Role of Indirect Taxes in Resource Mobilisation
    • Mobilization of financial resources through Government Revenues
    • Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.
    • Role of Fiscal and Monetary policies in resource mobilization
    • Role of Foreign investment in resource mobilization:Desirability and Consequences
    • Multi-lateral agencies and resource mobilization
    • Challenges to Resource Mobilization

    Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it

    • Meaning and concept of Inclusion
    • India’s experience of Inclusion
    • Why India’s growth is not inclusive?: Rural economy based growth, Need of Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth
    • What are the solutions?
    • Inclusion process through Social sector flagship schemes and Ground realities
    • Public distribution schemes: Can it be the way to inclusive growth
    • Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth
    • Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth
    • Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth
    • Public private partnership for inclusive growth
    • Industrial Integration for inclusive growth
    • Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth

    Government Budgeting

    • Budget terminology
    • Types of budget
    • Features of Outcome budgeting , Gender Budgeting
    • Benefits of budgeting
    • Flaws in budgeting process
    • Merger of Railway and General Budget
    • Budget analysis

    Investment models

    • Measures of Investment
    • Factors affecting investment
    • Classification of Investments : FDI
    • Angel Investors and Start-ups
    • Investment Models
    • Role of State
    • PPP (Public-Private Partnership)
    • Savings and Investment Trends

    Fiscal Policy

    • Fiscal Concept and Fiscal Policy in India
    • Government Revenues & Spending Trends
    • Impact of deficits on economic growth
    • Twin Balance Sheet syndrome
    • Types of Deficit


    • Objectives and Principles of Taxation
    • Taxation for Mobilization of Resources
    • Taxation System in India
    • Tax Reforms
    • GST and its impact on different sectors
    • Subsidies and its Impact

    Monetary policy in India

    • Instruments of Monetary Policy
    • Monetary policy in Pre-Reform Era (1948 – 1991)
    • Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991)
    • Urjit Patel Committee Report               
    • Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting

    Financial System

    • Money Market and Capital Market in India
    • Regulatory Framework in Indian Capital Market
    • Primary Market Reforms in India
    • Secondary Market Reforms in India
    • Current and capital account convertiblity
    • Risks of financial system              


    • Indian Banking System
    • Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India
    • Nationalization of Banks in India
    • Functions of Commercial Banks
    • Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India
    • Banking Reforms in India
    • New Bank License Criteria
    • Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria
    • Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)
    • Financial Inclusion
    • Issue of NPAs
    • Bills related to Banking

    Foreign trade & International Organizations

    • Trends in International Trade
    • Foreign Trade Policy
    • Balance of Payments and Foreign Capital
    • Impact of Globalization on Indian Economy
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • World Trade Organisation (WTO)
    • World Bank Group AIIB and NDB
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