UPSC SYLLABUS

Geography (Physical Geography: World & India (Mains))

Subjects

  • Maths
  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • General Geography

    • Universe
      • Theories of evolution of Universe
      • Star Formation
      • Formation of planets
    • Earth Evolution& Basics
      • Evolution of Earth
      • Evolution of Atmosphere
      • Evolution of Hydrosphere
      • Earth’s Geological time scale
      • Origin of life
      • The Earth’s Movements-Revolution and Rotation and Seasons
      • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its ffects

    Geomorphology

    • Earth’s Interior
      • Sources of Information about the Interior (Direct Sources, Indirect Sources - Earth Quake Wave, Volcanoes)                                
      • Structure of the Earth’s Interior
      • Mechanical and Chemical categorization of internal structure
    • Geology and Rock System
      • Minerals
      • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
        • Physical Characteristics
        • Classification -
      • Rocks ( Aggregate of Minerals )
        • Classification
        • Igneous
        • Sedimentary
        • Metamorphic
      • Rocks & landforms
      • Rocks & Soils
    • Geomorphic Processes
      • Endogenic Forces
        • Diastrophism
        • Orogenic
        • Epierogenic
        • Earthquakes
        • Plate movements
        • Volcanism
      • Exogenic Forces
        • Denudation Processes
        • Weathering & its Significance
        • Mass movements & their impact
        • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
    • Earthquakes and Volcanism
        • Earthquakes: Reasons, Distribution & impact
        • Volcanism
          • Types and distribution of Volcanoes
          • Volcanic Landforms (intrusive)
    • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
      • Theories
        • Continental Drift Theory
        • Convectional Current Theory
        • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
        • Sea Floor Spreading
        • Plate Tectonics
      • Isostasy
    • Landforms and their evolution
      • Causesof landform development
        • Geomorphic Processes
        • Geomorphic Agents
      • Geomorphic Agents and Landforms
        • Running Water
        • Development of a river System
        • Erosional Landforms
        • Depositional Landforms
      • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
        • Erosional Landforms
        • Depositional landforms
      • Glaciers
        • Erosional Landforms
        • Depositional Landforms
      • Waves and Currents
      • Winds
        • Erosional Landforms
        • Depositional Landforms
      • Landforms across the world
        • Rivers and lakes
        • Mountain and Peaks
        • Plateaus

    Oceanography

    • Hydrosphere
      • Water on the Surface of the Earth
      • Hydrological Cycle
    • Submarine Relief Features
      • Relief of the Ocean floor
      • Divisions of the ocean floor
      • Minor relief features
    • Temperature and Salinity
      • Temperature of the Ocean Water
      • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
      • Horizontal and Vertical Distribution
    • Salinity of the Ocean Water
      • Factors affecting salinity
      • Horizontals distribution of salinity
      • Vertical Distribution of salinity
    • Density of Ocean Waters
    • Movements of Ocean Water
    • Factors influencing Movement
    • Waves
      • Motion of waves
      • Characteristics of wave
    • Tides
      • Types of Tides
      • Importance of Tides
    • Ocean Currents
      • Characteristics of Ocean Currents
      • Types of ocean currents:
      • Major Ocean currents of the World
      • Effects of Ocean Currents
    • Marine Resources
      • Surface water resources
      • Ground water resources
      • Inland water resources
      • Oceanic Water Resources (Marine Resource)
      • Utilization of oceans by man
      • Water consumption patterns
      • Water Conservation and Management (Techniques)
    • Ocean Deposits and Corals
      • Terrigenous Deposits
      • Volcanic Deposits
      • Biotic deposits
      • Abiotic Deposits
      • Coral Reefs
        • Probable origin of Coral Reef
        • Types and significance of Coral Reef
        • Issue of Coral Bleaching

    Climatology

    • Atmosphere
      • Composition of the Atmosphere
      • Structure of the Atmosphere
    • Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature
      • Solar Radiation and Isolation
      • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
      • Terrestrial Radiation
      • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
      • Temperature
      • Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution
      • Distribution of Temperature
    • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Vertical variation of pressure
      • Horizontal distribution of pressure
      • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
      • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
      • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
      • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric
        Heating
      • Emergence of Pressure Belts
      • Hadley Cell , Ferrel Cell, Polar Cell
      • Seasonal Wind
      • Local Wind
      • Land and Sea Breezes
      • Mountain and Valley Winds
      • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream
        • Air mass & fronts
        • Cyclones
        • Thunderstorms
        • Tornadoes
    • Water in the Atmosphere
        • Water Vapour
        • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
        • Saturation – Dew Point
        • Evaporation and Condensation
          • Dew
          • Frost
          • Fog & Mist
          • Clouds
        • Precipitation
          • Rainfall
          • Snowfall
          • Sleet Hail
          • Hailstones
          • Types of Rainfall
          • World Distribution of Rainfall
    • Climatic Zones of the World
      • World Climate
      • Koeppen’s Scheme of Classification of Climate            
      • Climatic Zones of World

    Bio-Geography

    • Soil & Its Characteristics
      • Soil Characteristics
      • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
      • Process of Soil Formation
      • Soil Profiles and Horizons
      • Classification of Soil
      • Soil Degradation, Erosion and Conservation
    • Vegetation resources
      • Types of natural vegetation
      • Forests
        • Significance of forests
        • Factors of forest development
        • Classification of forests
        • forest cover
      • Grasslands
      • Desert vegetation
      • Tundra Vegetation
      • Deforestation
      • Conservation of forests
      • Reforestation
      • Afforestation
      • Forestry
        • Social forestry
        • Agro-forestry
        • Farm Forestry
        • Community Forestry

    Physical Geography of India

    • Physiography of India
      • Location
      • Geopolitical Significance of India
      • Geological Divisions
        • The Peninsular Block
        • The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
        • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain
        • Physiographic Divisions
    • Drainage System
        • Drainage Patterns
        • Drainage System of India
        • Himalayan Drainage System
          • River Systems of Himalayan Drainage
          • Indus river system
          • Ganga River System
          • Brahmaputra river system
        • Peninsular Drainage System
          • River Systems of Peninsular Drainage
          • Small Rivers Flowing Towards East and West
    • Climate
      • Factors influencing the climate of India
      • Monsoon
      • Mechanism of the Monsoon
        • Classical Theory
        • Modern theory
        • Air mass theory
        • Jet stream theory
      • ELNINO and LANINA & their impact
      • The rhythm of Seasons        
        • The cold weather season
        • The hot weather season
        • The southwest monsoon season
        • The retreating monsoon season
      • Climatic Regions of India
    • Soils in India
        • Classification of Soils
        • Soil textures
        • Issue of Soil degradation & Soil Erosion
        • Soil Conservation
    • Natural Vegetation
      • Types of Forests in India
      • Forest Cover in India
      • Forest Conservation
      • Forest Problems in India

    Environmental Issues

    • Floods and Droughts  
    • Forest fires
    • Deforestation
    • Desertification
    • Pollution
    • Climate Change and Global Warming
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