UPSC SYLLABUS

Geography (Physical Geography: World & India (Mains))

General Geography

  • Universe
    • Theories of evolution of Universe
    • Star Formation
    • Formation of planets
  • Earth Evolution& Basics
    • Evolution of Earth
    • Evolution of Atmosphere
    • Evolution of Hydrosphere
    • Earth’s Geological time scale
    • Origin of life
    • The Earth’s Movements-Revolution and Rotation and Seasons
    • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its ffects

Geomorphology

  • Earth’s Interior
    • Sources of Information about the Interior (Direct Sources, Indirect Sources - Earth Quake Wave, Volcanoes)                                
    • Structure of the Earth’s Interior
    • Mechanical and Chemical categorization of internal structure
  • Geology and Rock System
    • Minerals
    • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
      • Physical Characteristics
      • Classification -
    • Rocks ( Aggregate of Minerals )
      • Classification
      • Igneous
      • Sedimentary
      • Metamorphic
    • Rocks & landforms
    • Rocks & Soils
  • Geomorphic Processes
    • Endogenic Forces
      • Diastrophism
      • Orogenic
      • Epierogenic
      • Earthquakes
      • Plate movements
      • Volcanism
    • Exogenic Forces
      • Denudation Processes
      • Weathering & its Significance
      • Mass movements & their impact
      • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
  • Earthquakes and Volcanism
      • Earthquakes: Reasons, Distribution & impact
      • Volcanism
        • Types and distribution of Volcanoes
        • Volcanic Landforms (intrusive)
  • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
    • Theories
      • Continental Drift Theory
      • Convectional Current Theory
      • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
      • Sea Floor Spreading
      • Plate Tectonics
    • Isostasy
  • Landforms and their evolution
    • Causesof landform development
      • Geomorphic Processes
      • Geomorphic Agents
    • Geomorphic Agents and Landforms
      • Running Water
      • Development of a river System
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional Landforms
    • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional landforms
    • Glaciers
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional Landforms
    • Waves and Currents
    • Winds
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional Landforms
    • Landforms across the world
      • Rivers and lakes
      • Mountain and Peaks
      • Plateaus

Oceanography

  • Hydrosphere
    • Water on the Surface of the Earth
    • Hydrological Cycle
  • Submarine Relief Features
    • Relief of the Ocean floor
    • Divisions of the ocean floor
    • Minor relief features
  • Temperature and Salinity
    • Temperature of the Ocean Water
    • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
    • Horizontal and Vertical Distribution
  • Salinity of the Ocean Water
    • Factors affecting salinity
    • Horizontals distribution of salinity
    • Vertical Distribution of salinity
  • Density of Ocean Waters
  • Movements of Ocean Water
  • Factors influencing Movement
  • Waves
    • Motion of waves
    • Characteristics of wave
  • Tides
    • Types of Tides
    • Importance of Tides
  • Ocean Currents
    • Characteristics of Ocean Currents
    • Types of ocean currents:
    • Major Ocean currents of the World
    • Effects of Ocean Currents
  • Marine Resources
    • Surface water resources
    • Ground water resources
    • Inland water resources
    • Oceanic Water Resources (Marine Resource)
    • Utilization of oceans by man
    • Water consumption patterns
    • Water Conservation and Management (Techniques)
  • Ocean Deposits and Corals
    • Terrigenous Deposits
    • Volcanic Deposits
    • Biotic deposits
    • Abiotic Deposits
    • Coral Reefs
      • Probable origin of Coral Reef
      • Types and significance of Coral Reef
      • Issue of Coral Bleaching

Climatology

  • Atmosphere
    • Composition of the Atmosphere
    • Structure of the Atmosphere
  • Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature
    • Solar Radiation and Isolation
    • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
    • Terrestrial Radiation
    • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
    • Temperature
    • Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution
    • Distribution of Temperature
  • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
    • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Vertical variation of pressure
    • Horizontal distribution of pressure
    • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
    • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
    • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
    • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric
      Heating
    • Emergence of Pressure Belts
    • Hadley Cell , Ferrel Cell, Polar Cell
    • Seasonal Wind
    • Local Wind
    • Land and Sea Breezes
    • Mountain and Valley Winds
    • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream
      • Air mass & fronts
      • Cyclones
      • Thunderstorms
      • Tornadoes
  • Water in the Atmosphere
      • Water Vapour
      • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
      • Saturation – Dew Point
      • Evaporation and Condensation
        • Dew
        • Frost
        • Fog & Mist
        • Clouds
      • Precipitation
        • Rainfall
        • Snowfall
        • Sleet Hail
        • Hailstones
        • Types of Rainfall
        • World Distribution of Rainfall
  • Climatic Zones of the World
    • World Climate
    • Koeppen’s Scheme of Classification of Climate            
    • Climatic Zones of World

Bio-Geography

  • Soil & Its Characteristics
    • Soil Characteristics
    • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
    • Process of Soil Formation
    • Soil Profiles and Horizons
    • Classification of Soil
    • Soil Degradation, Erosion and Conservation
  • Vegetation resources
    • Types of natural vegetation
    • Forests
      • Significance of forests
      • Factors of forest development
      • Classification of forests
      • forest cover
    • Grasslands
    • Desert vegetation
    • Tundra Vegetation
    • Deforestation
    • Conservation of forests
    • Reforestation
    • Afforestation
    • Forestry
      • Social forestry
      • Agro-forestry
      • Farm Forestry
      • Community Forestry

Physical Geography of India

  • Physiography of India
    • Location
    • Geopolitical Significance of India
    • Geological Divisions
      • The Peninsular Block
      • The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
      • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain
      • Physiographic Divisions
  • Drainage System
      • Drainage Patterns
      • Drainage System of India
      • Himalayan Drainage System
        • River Systems of Himalayan Drainage
        • Indus river system
        • Ganga River System
        • Brahmaputra river system
      • Peninsular Drainage System
        • River Systems of Peninsular Drainage
        • Small Rivers Flowing Towards East and West
  • Climate
    • Factors influencing the climate of India
    • Monsoon
    • Mechanism of the Monsoon
      • Classical Theory
      • Modern theory
      • Air mass theory
      • Jet stream theory
    • ELNINO and LANINA & their impact
    • The rhythm of Seasons        
      • The cold weather season
      • The hot weather season
      • The southwest monsoon season
      • The retreating monsoon season
    • Climatic Regions of India
  • Soils in India
      • Classification of Soils
      • Soil textures
      • Issue of Soil degradation & Soil Erosion
      • Soil Conservation
  • Natural Vegetation
    • Types of Forests in India
    • Forest Cover in India
    • Forest Conservation
    • Forest Problems in India

Environmental Issues

  • Floods and Droughts  
  • Forest fires
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification
  • Pollution
  • Climate Change and Global Warming

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