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History (Modern India (Mains))


  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • Before European Penetration in India

    • Later Mughals
    • Disintegration of Mughal Empire
    • Rise of Regional States
      • Bengal
      • Hyderabad and Carnatic
      • Awadh           
      • Mysore
      • Kerala
      • The Sikhs
      • Rajput states and Jats
      • Marathas
    • Rise and fall of Marathas
    • Socio and Economic condition of people in 18th Century
    • Cultural life of people in 18th Century
    • Scientific outlook in 18th Century

    Beginning of European Penetration in India

    • Trade between India and Europe
    • Portuguese Domination
    • Spice trade of Dutch
    • British trade expansion in India and its effect on India from 1600-1744
    • Anglo-French Struggle and Subversion of Indian political power

    Expansion of British Empire in India 1756-1818

    • British expansion in Bengal
    • Importance of Battle of Plassey
    • Clash between Mir Qasim and East India Company
    • Dual system of administration in Bengal
    • Wars under Warren Hastings and Cornwallis
    • Expansion under Lord Wellesley
    • Subsidiary Alliance policy of Wellesley
    • Expansion under Cornwallis
    • Overpowering of Maratha Confederacy

    Consolidation under British Rule, 1818-1857

    • Conquest of Sind
    • Conquest of Punjab
    • Policy of Annexation of Dalhousie

    Structure of British Rule in India

    • End of Dual Government and Direct Administration of Bengal (From 1772)
    • Relations between East India Company and British state between 1765-1833             
    • Regulating Act of 1773 and Pitts India Act
    • Charter Act of 1813 and 1833

    British Economic Policy in India from 1757-1857

    • Commercial Policy of British from 1757-1857
    • Effect of Battle of Plassey on Indian Trade
    • Effect of Industrial Revolution on Economic relations with India
    • Factors that Make Britain Favorable for Industrial Revolution
    • Drain of Wealth
    • Development of Means of Transport and communication and industries
    • Land Revenue Policy of British (Permanent, Ryotwari, Mahalwari)
    • Effect of Land Revenue Policy on Agrarian relations in India

    Administrative Policy of British

    • Civil Service in India
    • Role of Army
    • Police
    • Judicial organization during British Rule
    • Introduction of Rule of Law
    • Equality Before Law

    Social and Cultural Policy of British

    • Modern Thoughts that influenced British Policies in India
    • Conservatives and Radicals
    • Policy of partial modernization
    • Humanitarian Measures (Abolition of Sati etc)
    • Spread of modern education

    Social and Religious Reforms in 19th Century

    • Social and Religious reforms in 19th Century
    • Role of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in social and religious regeneration
    • Radical trend between 1820 & 1830 (Derozio)
    • Ishwar Chandra VidyaSagar (Girl education, child marriage, widow remarriage and caste hierarchy)
    • Why impact of western Ideas felt more in Bengal than in Western India
    • Fight Against Caste System, Untouchability and Widow remarriage, Child marriage
    • Parsi Reforms
    • Sikh Reforms
    • Role of women
    • State of Education in India during 19th Century

    Revolt of 1857

    • Reasons for revolt of 1857
    • Participation in Revolt
    • Spread of Revolt
    • Response of British
    • Impact of Revolt of 1857
    • Factors responsible for failure of Revolt of 1857

    Administrative Changes Post Revolt of 1857

    • Government of India Act of 1858
    • Indian council Act of 1861
    • Role of Mayo, Lytton and Ripon
    • Promotion of Local bodies and role of Ripon
    • Changes in Army
    • Changed Relationship with Princely States
    • Reactionary policy of British
    • Divide and Rule
      • Restrictions on Press and Acts Related to it
      • Attitude towards social reform
      • Hostility towards educated Indians
      • Carrot and Stick policy
    • Labor Legislations

    Economic Impact of British Rule

    • Ruin of Traditional Economy
    • Impoverishment of peasantry
    • Ruin of old zamindars
    • Rise of new Landlordism
    • Deterioration of Agriculture
    • Development of modern industries
    • Rise of new social class in India
    • Poverty and Famines
    • Drain of Wealth theory

    Nationalist Movement (1858-1905)

    • Factors responsible for Rise of Nationalism
    • Predecessors of Indian National Congress
    • Indian National Congress
    • Constitutional Reforms by Moderates
    • Economic Reforms by Moderates
    • Administrative and other reforms by Moderates
    • Defence of Civil rights
    • Method of Constitutional agitation of Moderates
    • British Repsonse
    • Evaluation of role of moderates

    Social and Religious Reform after 1858

    • Factors responsible for Religious reform of 19th Century
    • Religious reforms in Maharashtra
    • Swami Dayanand and AryaSamaj
    • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    • Theosophical society
    • Swami vivekanand
    • Aligarh School of Thought
    • Reform among Parsis
    • Limitations of religious reform movement
    • Movement to Improve position of Women
    • Struggle Against Caste
    • Effect of National Awakening on social reforms
    • Social legislations in the 19th and 20th century

    Nationalist Movement (1905-1918)

    • Growth of militant Nationalism
    • How militant nationalists different from moderates
    • Swadeshi and Boycott Movement and participation from different sections
    • Women Participation before Gandhi
    • Growth of Revolutionary Terrorism
    • Indian National Congress between 1905-1914
    • Morley Minto Reforms
    • Muslim league and growth of communalism
    • British used Muslim league to fight rising nationalism
    • Nationalist and World War I
    • Home rule league movement
    • Revolutionary Organization like Ghadar Party
    • Lucknow session of 1916

    Struggle for Swaraj

    • Post world war scenario favorable for Nationalism    
    • Impact of Russian Revolution on National Movement
    • Montague Chelmsford reforms
    • Rowlatt Act
    • Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi and his ideas
    • Champaran Satyagraha, Ahmedabad Mill strike
    • Satyagraha against Rowlatt Act
    • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
    • Khilafat movement and Non cooperation movement
    • Impact of ChauriChaura Incident
    • Role of Swarajists
    • State peoples conference movements
    • Rise of Socialism within congress
    • Peasant, Tribal and workers agitation
    • Socialist turn to Revolutionary terrorism
    • Response of British to revolutionary terrorism
    • Boycott of Simon Commission
    • Nehru Report
    • Significance of PoornaSwaraj Resolution
    • Dandi March
    • Programme of CDM (1930-34) and British response
    • First Round table conference
    • Gandhi-Irwin pact and second RTC
    • Second phase of CDM
    • Women Participation after coming of Mahatma Gandhi
    • Communal Award
    • Poona Pact and Mahatma Gandhi fast unto death
    • Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar approach to caste and untouchability
    • Third RTC

    Nationalist Politics (1935-1939)

    • Government of India Act, 1935
    • Formation of Congress Ministries
    • Growth of Socialist Ideas
    • Congress and International Affairs

    Towards Independence

    • National Movement in Princely States
    • Growth of Communalism
    • National movement and World War II
    • August Offer , 1940
    • Individual civil disobedience movement (1940-41)
    • Cripps Mission and Reasons for Failure
    • Quit India Movement and British Response
    • Women participation in end stages of freedom struggle
    • Azad Hind Fauj and SC Bose
    • INA Trials
    • Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference
    • 1945-46 elections and the communal divide
    • RIN (Royal Indian Navy Mutiny)
    • Labour and peasant Unrest all over Country
    • Reasons Behind British Support for India’s demand for freedom
    • Cabinet Mission
    • Towards Partition and independence
    • Rise of Muslim communalism and partition of India
    • The Indian independence Act July, 1947
    • Role of Various Leaders
    • Factors leading to Partition
    • Why congress accepted partition of India

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