Economy (Sectors Of Indian Economy (Mains))

UPSC Syllabus

  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country
  • Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage
  • Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints
  • e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices
  • Public Distribution System - objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security
  • Technology missions
  • Economics of animal-rearing
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy
  • Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Other economic development in field of Manufacturing and service sector

Role of Agriculture in Indian Economy

  • Land resource
  • Land-use pattern and Land capability classification
  • Causes and Impact of Land Degradation
  • Sustainable Land Management
  • Steps taken by GOI

Land Reforms

  • Objectives of Land Reforms in India
  • Progress of Land Reforms in India
  • NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing

Agriculture Finance

  • Features of Agricultural Finance
  • Criteria for Agricultural Credit
  • Need for Agricultural Finance
  • Sources of Agricultural Finance
  • Problems of Agricultural Finance
  • Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture
  • Co-operative Credit Societies in India

Agricultural Credit Institutions

  • Multi Agency Approach
  • Commercial Bank
  • Lead Bank Scheme
  • Regional Rural Banks
  • National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
  • Reserve Bank of India
  • Kisan Credit Card Scheme
  • Bank Linkage Programme
  • Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)
  • Government Policy For Agricultural Credit
  • Farmers Service Societies (FSS)

Crop Insurance in India

  • Issues Related to Crop Insurance
  • Pradhan MantriFasalBimaYojana
  • Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes

Agriculture Marketing

  • Process of Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing
  • Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Analysis of APMC Act


  • Objectives of subsidies
  • Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies
  • Farm Subsidies
  • Fertiliser subsidies
  • Subsidy on power
  • Subsidy on irrigation
  • Rationale of Minimum Support Price
  • Impact of MSP on inflation
  • Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations,, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS           
  • Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers                                        
  • Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB             
  • Important questions on the future of subsidies

Agricultural Revolutions in India

  • Green Revolution
  • White Revolution – Operation Flood
  • Yellow Revolution
  • Blue Revolution
  • Golden Fibre Revolution: Jute

Food Processing

  • Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors
  • Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector
  • Issues in Food Processing Sector
  • FDI Policy in Food Processing
  • Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector
  • Strategies Adopted in Budget
  • New foreign and domestic investment
  • Sector-specific government policies

Industrial policy and industrial development: Main Issues

  • Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution
    1948 and 1956 critically
  • New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization
  • Phases of Industrial development since independence

Main features of Industrial development in India

  • Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.
  • Strategies for disinvestment and privatization
  • Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization
  • New Manufacturing Policy
  • Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors
  • SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income
  • Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues
  • Main constraints in the industrial development of India
  • Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India
  • Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship
  • Make in India achievements

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