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GS Paper-2, Batch Starts: 2nd December

Polity & Governance (Governance (Mains))


  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • UPSC Syllabus

    • Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity
    • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
    • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
    • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability
    • E-governance-applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential
    • Citizens Charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures
    • Role of civil services in a democracy
    • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
    • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies


    • Concept of Good Governance
    • Issues Concerning Governance
    • Right Based Approach in Policy Making
    • Public Policy Making and Policy Implementation
    • How to Establish Good Governance

    Transparency & Accountability

    • Right to Information
      • Information sharing and transparency in government
      • RTI and Official Secret Act: Who’s winning and why Judiciary wants to remain isolated
    • Citizen’s Charters
      • Benefits of Citizen Charter
      • Citizen Charter in India: An Evaluation
      • Problems Faced in Implementing the Charters
      • Steps to improve Citizen Charters
      • Indian Approach to Citizen Charter: Sevottam Model
      • Administrative Reforms Commission’s Seven Step Model for Citizen Centricity
      • Right to Service
    • Extent of regulations and openness of media and social networking sites
      • K. Visanathan Committee On Hate Speech
      • Role of MEDIA in bringing Transparency and Accountability
      • Social Media and Accountability
    • E-Governance
      • Role of E-Governance in bringing Transparency and Accountability
      • Major E-Governance Projects and challenges in their implementation
    • Role of civil services in a democracy
      • Linkage of Civil Services and Democracy
      • Debate on Lateral Entry in Civil Services
      • Relation between Civil Servants and Political Executives
      • Performance Appraisal System in Bureaucracy
      • Reforms Needed In Indian Bureaucracy
    • Codes of Ethics and Code of Conduct
      • Paid news abuse by social media a poll menace
      • Model code of conduct
    • Utilization of Public funds
      • Significance of Public Accounts Committee
      • Challenges of corruption and incompetence

    Regulatory Structure and Governance Reforms

    • Functions and responsibilities of various Bodies
      • Analysis of Autonomy and functioning of CAG, CBI, CVC and NHRC
      • Lokpal and rise of Ombudsman era: a critical evaluation of journey traveled  so far
      • State and operational effectiveness of Local governments in India
      • Corporate Governance in India - Why is it so critical
    • Police Reforms in India
    • Curb On VIP Culture
    • Prison Reforms in India
    • Improving Governance In Public Systems

    Development Processes And The Development Industry

    • Role of Self Help Group in Development
    • Shortcomings and Recommendations to  Improve Self Help Group
    • Role and functions of NGOs in the Development
    • Challenges Faced by NGOs in India
    • Issue of Fund Mismanagement
    • Role of Microfinance Institutions in Development Process
    • Issues Related to Microfinance Institutions and Recommendations
    • Role of Foreign aid in Development
    • The role and function of pressure groups in India
    • Changing Pattern of Pressure Group Politics in India

    Socio-Economic Development

    • Concept of Human Development
      • Economic Growth and Human Development: Two-Way Link
      • Measurement of Human Development
    • Understanding Poverty
      • Dimensions of Poverty
      • Linkage between Poverty and Development
      • Recommendations of Rangarajan Committee Report
      • Poverty Alleviation Strategy Since Independence
      • Programmes for Poverty Alleviation
      • Concept of Inequality
      • World Inequality Report 2018: Findings of the Report
      • Income Inequality in India
      • Recommendations to Reduce Inequality
    • HUNGER
      • Manifestations of Hunger and its causes
      • Challenges to Food Security
      • Global Hunger Index Report, 2018
      • Recommendations
    • Institutional Measures for Welfare of Vulnerable Sections
      • Issues Related to the Weaker Sections & Vulnerable groups in India
      • Constitutional Provisions for the  Welfare of Society
      • Institutional Measures for the Welfare of the Society
      • Issues with the Institutional Mechanisms
    • HEALTH
      • Public Health System of India
      • Shortcomings of the Healthcare Sector
      • Urgency of achieving Universal Health  Coverage
      • Evaluation of SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
      • Global Nutrition Report 2018
      • Initiatives Taken In Health Sector : Ayushman Bharat
      • National Health Policy
      • Challenges of Education sector in India
      • Right to Education and Challenges to EWS Children
      • Initiatives by Government

    Role of Civil Services in a Democracy

    • Concept of civil services
    • Need for civil services
    • Different role of civil services
      • Law making
      • Policy formulation
      • Policy implementation
      • Policy evaluation
      • Civil services as protector of democracy
      • To protect minorities (religious and linguistic)
      • To promote Inclusive and sustainable
      • Various Reforms in Civil Services

    Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity

    • What are pressure groups?
    • Types of pressure groups
    • Significance of pressure groups in India
    • Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party
    • Evaluation of pressure groups role

    Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies

    • Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment)- composition of CAG
    • Functions and responsibilities of CAG
    • Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different Acts of Parliament.)
    • Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment)- composition of ECI
    • Functions and responsibilities of ECI
    • Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament)
    • Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC
    • Functions and responsibilities of UPSC
    • Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
    • Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment)- composition of Finance commission
    • Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission
    • Powers and privileges of Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
    • National commission for SCs and STs.

    Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

    • SEBI, CVC, CBI, Planning Commission NDC, PMO
    • TRAI, IRDA
    • National Human Rights Commission
    • State Human Rights Commission
    • Central Information Commission
    • State Information Commission
    • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
    • Medical Council of India
    • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority
    • Biodiversity Authority of India
    • Press Council of India
    • Forward Markets Commission
    • Inland Waterways Authority of India
    • Role of CAG
    • 14th Finance Commission: Analysis
    • 7th Pay Commission Report and Repercussions
    • AFSPA and Second ARC
    • Inter-State River Water Dispute: Cauvery dispute
    • Role of Niti Aayog

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