Indian Society (Indian Society (Mains))

UPSC Syllabus

  • Salient features of Indian Society
  • Diversity of India
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • National Integration, communalism, regionalism & secularism
  • Role of women and women’s organization
  • Social empowerment, poverty and developmental issues
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable section
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Unity in Diversity

  • Concepts of Unity and Diversity
  • Forms of Diversity in India
  • Reasons for so much Diversity
  • Bonds of Unity In India
  • Geo-political Unity
  • The Institution of Pilgrimage
  • Tradition of Accommodation
  • Tradition of Interdependence
  • Role of Sensitive Leaders
  • Constitutional Safeguards – Role of Constitution Framers

Challenges of Diversity to Unity (Challenges to National Integration)

  • Diversity of Constituents
  • Regionalism and Cultural Identities
  • Casteism
  • Linguism
  • Communalism
  • Social Inequalities
  • Regional Disparities
  • Ethno-Nationality and Ethnic Conflicts
  • Tribal Identity
  • Basic Sociological Concepts
  • The Family and Kinship
  • Concept of Patriarchy In India


  • Secularism And Secularization
  • Western and Indian Concept
  • Process of Secularization
  • Secularism and Forced Conversion in India

Regionalism, Communalism, Fundamentalism and communal Violence

  • Regionalism
  • Regionalism in India
  • Types of Regionalism
  • Effects of Regionalism
  • Regionalism: Demand for Smaller States
  • Strategies to tackle Regionalism
  • Sons of Soil Concept
  • Communilism Concept, Orgin, Impact
  • Fundamentalism-religious, Cultural
  • Communal Violence

Social Empowerment

  • Constitutional Provisions Relevant to Social Justice & Empowerment of Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribes
  • Status of Minorities In India

The Scheduled Castes: From Untouchable to Dalit

  • Population of the Scheduled Castes
  • Types of Disabilities of the SCs
  • From Untouchables to the Dalits: The Process of Identity Formation
  • Combating Mechanism against Caste Atrocities and Violence
  • The State Efforts for Dalit Emancipation
  • Identify Political Implications on Dalits

Tribals in India

  • Chronic Indebtedness
  • Forest Related Problems
  • Destruction of the Forest Environment and the Tribal People
  • Development and Displacement
  • Analysis of Forest Rights Act

Women Movements

  • 19th Century Women Movements – Under Social Reform Movements
  • Women’s Issues During Gandhian Era
  • Issues in Post Independence Era
  • Violence Against Women
  • Developmental Movement
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Feminism and Post Feminism

Social Justice

  • Concept of Casteism in India
  • Caste and Politics
  • The Reservation Policy Debate
  • Social Justice and Social Development

Social Security In India

  • Concept
  • Social Security System in India
  • Organized Sector and Social Security
  • Unorganised Sector and Social Security
  • Centrally Funded Social Assistance Programmes
  • Public Initiatives
  • Review of the implementation of Social Security Laws in the Country
  • Suggestions for Improving the Social Security Matrix
  • Social security code for all

Understanding Poverty

  • Dimensions of Poverty
  • Linkage between Poverty and Development
  • Recommendations of Rangarajan Committee Report
  • Poverty Alleviation Strategy Since Independence
  • Programmes for Poverty Alleviation
  • Concept of Inequality


  • Meaning of Globalization
  • Reasons for Globalization
  • Dimensions/Impact
  • Political
  • Cultural and Social
  • Economic
  • Anti-Globalization Movement
  • New Localism
  • NPM (New public management)          

Urbanization & Census 2011

  • Urbanization
  • Trend and pattern of Urbanization
  • Issues Related to Urbanization in India
  • Status of Service Delivery and Governance
  • Urban Development Projects
  • Critical Analysis of Smart City Mission
  • SDG’s and urbanization

Census 2011

  • Highlights of 2011 Census
  • Analysis of Sex Ratio Data
  • Impact of Skewed Ratio
  • Laws related to Prevent Female Infanticide
  • Recent initiatives
  • Trend and Current Scenario of Literacy in India
  • Literacy Challenges in India as Whole
  • Efforts to Improve the Literacy in Country
  • Child Health Indicators and Maternal Health             
  • Initiatives taken by the Government
  • Why the Health schemes fail to bring change?
  • Family Planning and Population Policy of India
  • Analysis on Status of Old Age Population: Issues & Policy Initiative
  • Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011
  • NRC

Contemporary Issues

  • Secularism, Regionalism & Communalism
    • Secularism and Anti Conversion    
    • Regionalism: Demand for Smaller States     
    • Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011            
    • Gender Discrimination in the Corporate Sector

Issues Related to Women

  • Gender Discrimination in Corporate Sector
  • Female Genital Mutilation
  • Bill on Banning Triple Talaq
  • Issues of women entry to place of worship
  • Adultery No Longer a Crime : SC
  • Unwanted Girls in India
  • Altruistic Surrogacy in India
  • Women in Panchayats
  • Women Participation in Economy
  • # Me Too Movement
  • Draft National Policy for Women, 2016
  • Laws Related to Stalking in India
  • Debate on the Issue of Marital Rape
  • India’s Maternity Laws need Serious Tweaking         
  • Women in Judiciary Matters
  • SC’s Judgment on Dowry
  • Gender Budgeting: Critical Analysis

Issues Related to Children

  • Issues Faced by Children in War Zone
  • High Dropout Rate of Girls in India
  • Child Trafficking
  • Safety of Children in Schools
  • Issue of Malnutrition in India
  • Amendments Proposed in Child Labour Act
  • Plight of Street Children
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • Child Marriages in India
  • Death for child Rape
  • Draft National Child Protection Policy
  • National Action Plan for Children, 2016

Other Issues

  • India’s Family Planning Programme: Critical Analysis
  • Demography and Policy Planning
  • India’s Ageing Report
  • Legalising Same Sex Marriage
  • Domestic Workers: Issues and Laws
  • Development Leading to Displacement
  • Moral Policing
  • Euthanasia and Living Will
  • Inadequacies in existing Human Trafficking laws in India
  • Transgender Bill passed in Lok Sabha with Amendments
  • Mental Health Care Bill
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act
  • Manual Scavenging
  • Mob lynching and Rule of Law
  • Issue Related to Under trials
  • Income Inequality in India
  • Indigenous People in India : An Analysis
  • Debate Over Death Penalty
  • Global Slavery Index Report
  • Right to Privacy Judgement
  • SC Verdict on SC/ST Atrocities Bill
  • Social Stigma Attached with HIV

Health & Education

  • Status Health sector
  • Status of Education sector
  • Allied Health Care Professions Bill, 2018
  • Ahead on Malaria: On reduction in cases in India
  • India and Neglected Disease Treatment
  • TB Status in India and Bedaquiline Patent Challenge
  • Status of E-Pharmacies in India
  • Changes Proposed in No Detention Policy
  • National Policy on Education
  • Capacity Building for Primary Health Care
  • NITI Aayog on Privatisation of Urban Health Care
  • National Health Policy, 2017
  • Regulating Private Healthcare
  • India’s Nutrition Challenge
  • Food Fortification
  • Sanitation and Nutrition Linkage
  • Ayushman Bharat


  • Is social media polarizing society?
  • Online political adverstising and challenge for democracy and society
  • Draft Social Security Code
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Critical Analysis of Stand Up India Scheme
  • SC Suggests for Prison Reforms
  • Statue of Unity

© 2020 Basix Education Pvt. Ltd. All Rights Reserved