UPSC SYLLABUS

Geography (Geography (Prelims))

General Geography

  • Universe
    • Theories of development of Universe
    • Galaxy
    • Star formation
    • Planet formation
    • Solar system
    • Moon
    • Asteroid
    • Meteor
    • Kupier belt
    • Comets
    • Dwarf planets
  • Earth Evolution
    • Geological History of Earth
    • Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure
      • Evolution of Lithosphere
      • Evolution of Atmosphere
      • Evolution of Hydrosphere
    • Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians
    • Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects
    • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects
    • Time Zones, Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar
    • Eclipses - Solar, Lunar
    • Earth’s magnetic field
    • Earth’s Geological time scale
    • ORIGIN of LIFE

Geomorphology

  • Earth’s Interior
    • Interior of the Earth
      • Crust
      • Mantle
      • Core
    • Sources of Information
      • Direct
      • Indirect - Earth Quake Waves Volcanoes    
    • Theories – Suess Theory
  • Geology and Rock system
    • Minerals
    • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
      • Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz, Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica , Olivine
      • Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak
      • Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity
      • Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non Ferrous
      • Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement
    • Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals)
      • Petrology
      • Rocks & landforms
      • Rocks & Soils
      • 3 Family of Rocks
      • Igneous
      • Sedimentary
      • Metamorphic
  • Geomorphic Processes
    • Earth’s Surface
      • Exogenic Forces
      • Endogenic Forces
      • Gradation , Degradation & Agradation
    • Endogenic Forces
      • Diastrophism
      • Orogenic
      • Epierogenic
      • Earthquakes
      • Plate movements
      • Volcanism
    • Exogenic Forces
      • Denudation Processes
      • Weathering
      • Mass movements
      • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
  • Earthquakes and Volcanism
    • Earthquakes
      • Waves: P,S, Body, Surface,
      • Shadow Zone
      • Types of Earthquakes
      • Effects
      • Frequency
      • Locating an Epicentre
    • Volcanism
      • Types
        • Shield
        • Composite
        • Caldera
        • Flood Basalt
        • Mid Ocean Ridge
      • Landforms (intrusive)
        • Batholiths
        • Lacoliths
        • Lopoliths
        • Phacoliths
        • Sills
        • Dykes
  • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
    • Theories
    • Continental Drift Theory
      • Alfred Wegner
      • Pangea, Panthalasa
      • Laurasia, Gondwanaland
    • Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory
      • Jigsaw Fit
      • Rocks of Same age across oceans
      • Tillite
      • Placer Deposits
      • Distribution of Fossils
    • Isostacy
    • Sea Floor Spreading
    • Forces of Drifting
      • Pole Fleeing Force
      • Tidal Force
    • Post Drift Studies
    • Convectional Current Theory
    • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
    • Plate Tectonics
      • Lithospheric Plates - Major Plate - Minor Plates
    • Plate Boundaries – Divergent – Convergent – Transform
    • Rates of Plate Movements
    • Force of plate movement
    • Indian Plate
  • Landforms and their evolution
    • Causes
      • Geomorphic Processes
      • Geomorphic Agents
    • Geomorphic Agent
      • Erosional or Destructional
      • Depositional or Constructional
    • Agents and their Impacts - Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents
    • Winds
      • As agents in Hot deserts
      • Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact
      • Erosional landforms
        • Pediments and Pediplains
        • Playas
        • Deflation Hollows and Caves
        • Mushroom , Table & Pedestal Rocks
    • Depositional Landforms
      • Barchans
      • Seif
      • Parabolic
      • Transverse
      • Longitudinal
    • Running Water
      • Erosional Landforms
        • Valleys
          • Rills
          • Gullies
          • Valleys – V Shape , Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary)
        • Potholes & Plunge pools
        • Incised or entrenched meanders
        • River Terraces – paired & unpaired
      • Depositional Landforms
        • Alluvial Fans
        • Delta
        • Flood plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars
        • Meansders, Slip off bank, Under cut bank
        • Oxbow lake
        • Braided Channels
    • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
      • Permeable Rocks
        • Percolation
        • Bedding Plains
    • Limestone and Dolomite Regions
      • Balkans , Adjacent to Adriatic regions
    • Erosional Landforms
      • Pools - Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements
      • Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzit, Caves and Tunnels
    • Depositional landforms
      • Stalactites
      • Stalagmites
      • Pillar Columns
    • Glaciers
      • Erosional Landforms
        • Cirque of Tarn Lakes
        • Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete
        • Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords
      • Depositional Landforms
        • Glacial Tills
        • Moraines
        • Eskers
        • Outwash Planes
        • Drumlins
    • Waves and Currents
      • High Rocky Coasts &
        Low Sedimentary Coasts
      • Erosional Landforms
        • Cliffs
        • Terraces
        • Caves
        • Stacks
      • Depositional Landforms
        • Beaches and Dunes
        • Bars, Barriers, Spits
    • Weathering
      • Factors
        • Geological
        • Climatic
        • Topograhic
        • Vegetative
      • Major Processes
        • Chemical
        • Physical or Mechanical
        • Biological
      • Chemical – Forces Chemical Action
        • Solution
        • Carbonation
        • Hydration
        • Oxidation & Reduction
      • Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure
        • Unloading & Expansion
        • Temperature changes and Expansion
        • Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging
        • Salt Weathering
    • Biological Weathering
      • Burrowing
      • Wedging
      • Plant Roots
    • Effects of Weathering
      • Exfoliation (Flakin) – Exfoliation Domes
    • Significance of Weathering
      • Soil Formation
      • Biomes and Biodiversity
      • Leaching / Enrichment
    • Mass Movements
      • Activating causes
      • Forms of movement – Heave Flow Slide
  • Landforms across the world
    • Rivers and lakes (Factual)
    • Mountain and Peaks (Factual)
    • Plateaus (Factual)

Oceanography

  • Hydroshpere
    • Water on the Surface of the Earth
    • Hydrological Cycle
      • Component
      • Processes
  • Submarine Relief Features
    • Oceans
    • Relief of the Ocean floor
    • Divisions of the ocean floor
      • Continental Shelf
      • Continental Slope
      • Deep sea plain
      • Oceanic deep and Trenches
  • Minor relief features
    • Mid oceanic ridges
    • Seamount
    • Submarine canyons
    • Guyouts
    • Volcanic Islands
    • Fracture Zones
    • Hotspots
    • Coral Islands
    • Atoll
  • Temperature and Salinity
    • Temperature of the Ocean Water
      • Vertical
      • Spatial
      • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
        • Latitude
        • Unequal distribution of land & Water
        • Prevailing wind
        • Ocean Currents
        • Horizontal & Vertical Distribution
  • Salinity of the Ocean Water
    • Factors affecting salinity
      • Evaporation and precipitation
      • Fresh water flow from rivers
      • Ocean currents
        • Horizontals distribution of salinity
        • Vertical Distribution of salinity
    • Density of Ocean Waters
  • Waves, Ocean Currents, Tides
    • Movements of ocean Water                
    • Factors influencing Movement
      • Temperature
      • Salinity
      • Density
    • Motion – Horizontal and Vertical Currents
    • Waves
      • Motion of waves and water molecules
      • Characteristics of wave
      • Crest and Trough
      • Height
      • Amplitude
      • Period
      • Length
      • Speed
      • Frequency
    • Tides
      • Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides
      • Tidal currents
      • Types of Tides
        • Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed
        • Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides
      • Importance of Tides
    • Ocean Currents
      • Primary Force that initiates the movement
        • Heating of solar energy
        • Wind
        • Gravity
        • Coriolis force
      • Secondary force that influence the currents to flow
      • Types of ocean currents:
        • Surface currents & Deep water currents based on Depth
        • Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature
      • Major Ocean currents of the World
      • Effects of Ocean Currents
  • Marine Resources
    • Underground water resource
    • Surface water resources
    • Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources
    • Oceanic Water Resources (Marine Resource)
    • Utilization of oceans by man
    • Water consumption patterns
    • Conservation of Water Resources
    • Techniques of Water Conservation
  • Ocean Deposits and Corals
    • Terrigenous Deposits
    • Volcanic Deposits
    • Biotic deposits
      • Neritic
      • Pelagic ( Calcereous , Siliceous )
    • Abiotic Deposits
    • Coral Reefs
    • Great Barrier Reef

Climatology

  • Atmosphere
    • Composition
    • Gases
    • Water Vapour
    • Dust Particles
    • Structure
    • Exosphere
    • Thermosphere
    • Mesosphere
    • Stratosphere
    • Troposphere
    • Altitude vs. Temperature
  • Inversion of Temperature
    • Temperature
    • Factors controlling Temp distribution
    • Distribution of Temp Month of January-July
    • Range of Temp Month of January-July
    • Inversion of Temperature
  • Insolation and Heat Budget
    • Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature Insolation
    • Aphelion and Perihelion
    • Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth
      • Day Season Year
      • Rotation on Axis, Angle of Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day
      • Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.
    • Heat Balance
    • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
      • Conduction
      • Convection
      • Advection
    • Terrestrial Radiation
    • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
    • Macro Budget
      • Albedo
      • Shortwave Radiation
      • Long wave Earth Radiation
    • Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface
  • Winds and Pressure belts
    • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
    • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Vertical variation of pressure
    • Horizontal distribution of pressure
    • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
    • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
    • Pressure Gradient Force
    • Frictional Force
    • Coriolis Force
    • Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation)
    • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
    • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating
    • Emergence of Pressure Belts
    • Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun
    • Distribution of continents & Oceans
    • Rotation of the Earth
    • Circulation
    • Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell , Ferrel Cell
    • Seasonal Wind
    • Local Wind
    • Land and Sea Breezes
    • Mountain and Valley Winds
  • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream
    • Air mass & fronts
    • Cyclones
    • Thunderstorms
    • Tornadoes
    • Monsoons
    • Fronts
  • Precipitation
    • Water in the Atmosphere
    • Water Vapour
    • Precipitation
    • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
    • Saturation – Dew Point
    • Evaporation and Condensation
    • Dew
    • Frost
    • Fog & Mist
    • Clouds
      • Types – Cirrus, Cumulus, Stratus, Nimbus
      • High – Cirrus, Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus
      • Middle – Altostratus, Altocumulus
      • Low – Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus
    • Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus
    • Precipitation
    • Rainfall, Snowfall, Sleet Hail, Hailstones
    • Types of Rainfall
    • Conventional
    • Orographic
    • Cyclonic
    • World Distribution of Rainfall
  • Climatic Zones of the World
    • Koppene’s Classification Climatic Zones
    • World Climate
    • The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate
    • The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical Marine Climates
    • The Savanna or Sudan Climate
    • The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates
    • The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate
    • The Temperate Continental (Steppe Climate)
    • The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin  (China Type Climate)
    • The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type Climate)
    • The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate
    • The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate
    • The Arctic or Polar Climate

Bio-Geography

  • Soil Characteristics
    • Soil Characteristics
    • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
    • Stages of Soil Formation
    • Soil Forming Processes
    • Soil Profiles and Horizons
    • Soil Classification
    • Soil Erosion and Conservation
  • Vegetation resources
    • Types of natural vegetation
    • Forests
    • Significance of forests
    • Economic significance, Ecological significance
    • Cultural significance
    • Factors of forest development
    • Extent of forest cover
    • Classification of forests
    • Grasslands
    • Desert vegetation
    • Tundra Vegetation
    • Economic utilization of forests
    • Deforestation
    • Deforestation in tropical forests
    • Deforestation in temperate forests
    • Rate and extent of deforestation
    • Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation
    • Indirect deforestation
    • Underlying causes of deforestation
    • Conservation of forests
    • Forest conservation strategies
    • Reforestation
    • Monoculture plantation
    • Afforestation
    • Types of forestry
    • Social forestry
    • Agro-forestry

Human and Economic Geography of the World

  • Demography and Census
    • Concept of human resources
    • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
      • Geographical Factors
        • Availability of water
        • Landforms
        • Climate
        • Soils
      • Economic Factors
        • Minerals
        • Urbanisation
        • Industrialisation
        • Socio-cultural factors
    • Population Growth
        • Growth of Population
        • Growth Rate of Population
        • Natural growth of Population
        • Positive Growth of Population
        • Negative Growth of Population
    • Components of Population change
      • Crude Birth Rate
      • Crude Death Rate
      • Migration – Place of Origin and Place of Destination
      • Immigration
      • Emigration
      • Push Factors and Pull Factors
    • Trends in Population Growth
    • Doubling time of world population
    • Spatial pattern of Population change
    • Impact of Population Change
    • Demographic Transition
      • Demographic Transition Theory
      • Demographic Cycle
    • Theories of population growth
      • Malthusian theory
      • Marxian theory
      • Demographic Transition Theory
      • Optimum population
      • Over-population
      • Under-population
    • Population Control Measures
    • World population distribution, Density and Growth
      • Continent-wide distribution of population
      • Pattern of population density globally
      • Population increase in the world
    • Population Composition
        • Sex composition
          • Sex Ratio
          • Natural Advantage vs Social Advantage
        • Age Structure
          • Age – sex Pyramid
          • Expanding Populations
          • Constant Population
          • Declining Popoulation
        • Literacy – literacy Rate
        • Rural Urban Composition
        • Occupational Structure
        • Religion based Composition
    • Population problems
      • Population problems of developing countries
      • Population problems of developed countries
      • Population Policies: of China, of India
    • Census 2011
      • Census Terminologies
      • Census of India important information
  • Human Development
    • Growth vs Development
    • The four pillars of Development
      • Equity
      • Sustainability
      • Productivity
      • Empowerment
    • Approaches to Human Development
    • Measuring Human Development
      • Income Approach
      • Welfare Approach
      • Basic Needs Approach
      • Capability Approach
    • Internation Comparisions of Human Development
  • Economic Activities
    • Primary Activities
      • Hunting and Gathering Pastoralism
      • Nomadic Herding
      • Commercial livestock Rearing
      • Agriculture
        • Subsistence Agriculture
        • Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
        • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
        • Planation Agriculture
        • Extensive Commercial Grain Cultivation
        • Mixed Farming
        • Dairy Farming
        • Mediterranean Agriculture
        • Viticulture
        • Market Gardening and Horticulture – Truck Farming
        • Cooperative Farming
        • Collective Farming
      • Mining
        • Factors affecting Mining
        • Methods of Mining – Open Cast and underground mining
    • Secondary Activities
      • Manufacturing
      • Characteristics of Modern large scale Manufacturing
      • Specialisation of Skills/ methods of Production, Mechanisation  - Technological Innovation 
      • Access to market, Access to labour Supply, Access to Sources of Energy, Access to Transportaion and communication Facilities
      • Government Policy
    • Classification of Manufacturing Industries
      • Industries based on size
        • Small Scale manufacturing
        • Large Scale manufacturing
      • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials
        • Agro Based industries
        • Mineral Based Industries
        • Chemical based Industries
        • Forest based Raw material using industries
        • Animal Based industries
      • Industries based on Output/Product
      • Industries based on ownership
    • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities                
      • Types of Tertiary Activities
        • Retail trading
        • Trade and commerce
        • Wholesale Trading
        • Transport
        • Communication
        • Services
      • People engaged in tertiary Activities
        • Tourism
        • Medical Services
        • Quaternary Activities
        • Quinary Activities
      • Concept of Digital Divide
  • Transport and Communication
    • Transport
      • Modes of Transportation
      • Land Transport
      • Roads
      • Railways
      • Water Transport
      • Sea Routes
      • Inland Waterways
      • Air Transport
      • Pipelines
    • Communications
      • Satellite communication
      • Cyber space internet
  • International Trade
    • History of international Trade
    • Basis of International Trade
      • Difference in national resources
      • Population Factors
      • Stage of Economic Development
      • Extent of Foreign Investment
      • Transport
    • Important aspects of International Trade
      • Volume of Trade
      • Composition of Trade
      • Direction of Trade
      • Balance of Trade
    • Types of International Trade
    • Case of Free Trade
    • WTO – World Trade Organisation and Regional Trade Blocs
    • Gateways of International Trade
      • Ports
      • Industrial Ports
      • Commercial Ports
      • Comprehensive Ports
      • Inland Ports
      • Out Ports
      • Oil Ports
      • Port of call
      • Packet station
      • Entrepot Ports
      • Naval Ports
  • Settlement
    • Types and Patterns of settlements
      • Compact of Nucleated Settlements
      • Dispersed settlement
    • Rural Settlements                                   
      • Factors affecting location of rural settlements
      • Patterns of Rural settlements
    • Urban Settlements
      • Classification of Urban Settlements
      • Factors affecting location of rural settlements
      • Functions of Urban Centre
      • Classification of Towns on the basis of Forms
      • Types of Urban Settlements
        • Town, City, Conurbation, Megalopolis, Million City
    • Issues of Urbanization in India
    • Rural Urban Migration
    • Emergence of Slums
    • Inclusive Cities/Smart cities

Indian Geography

  • Physiography of India
    • Geological Region
    • Location
    • Physiographic Sub-Units
      • Himalayans
      • Northern Plains
      • Peninsular Plateau
      • Thar Desert
      • Coastal Plain
      • The Islands
    • Mountain System
      • Classification of The Himalayan System
      • Regional Division of the Himalaya
    • The Peninsular - Peninsular Plateaus
    • Plains - Northern Plains of India          
    • Lakes
    • Deserts
    • Indian Coasts and Islands
  • Drainage System
    • Classification of Drainage
    • Himalayan Drainage
    • Indus river system
    • Indus drainage system
    • Ganga River System
    • Brahmaputra river system
    • Peninsular River System
    • East flowing Rivers
    • West flowing Rivers
    • Mains Rivers and their tributaries
    • Famous cities and river banks
  • Climate
    • Factors influencing the climate of India
    • Monsoon
    • Mechanism of the Monsoon
      • Classical Theory
      • Modern theory
      • Air mass theory
      • Jet stream theory
    • EL NINO and LA NINA
    • Seasonal rhythm
    • Koppen’s Climatic classification
    • Indian Droughts and Floods
  • Soils in India
    • Soil Acidity
    • Soil textures
    • Minerals of Soil
    • Soil Erosion
    • Soil Conservation
  • Natural Vegetation
    • Vegetation
    • Mangroves
    • Distribution of Forest Area
    • Forest Problems in India
  • Population
    • Size, growth rate and distribution of population
    • India in World Population
    • Demographic transition
    • Census in India
    • Ranking of States and Union
    • Territories by population: 2001 & 2011
    • Population Growth Rates
    • Population: States and UT
    • Decadal growth rate
    • National Population Policy                   
    • Density of population
    • Literacy
    • Literacy in major states
    • Literacy rate in India: 1951-2011
    • Ranking of States and UTs by 206 literacy rate: 2011
    • Gender composition of the Population
    • Trends in Sex Ratio in India
    • Child sex ratio in age group 0-6 yrs
    • Sex ratio of age 7 years and above population
    • Old Age People
    • Health Indicators
  • Settlements and Urbanization
    • Rural Settlements
    • Factors affecting settlement patterns
    • Settlement types
    • Urbanization
    • Urban Agglomeration / Cities
  • Land Resource
    • Land-use
    • Land capability classification
    • Causes of Land Degradation
    • Impact of Land Degradation
    • Steps taken by GOI
    • Sustainable Land Management
  • Mineral Resource
    • Types of minerals: Metallic minerals
    • Non-metallic mineral
    • Distribution of minerals and mining regions
    • Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore
    • Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous
    • Manganese
    • Chromium
    • Nickel
    • Tungsten
    • Antimony
    • Copper
    • Bauxite and Aluminium
    • Zinc; Lead
    • Tin
    • Gold
    • Silver
    • Platinum
    • Mineral chemicals
    • Mica
    • Potash
    • Phosphate
    • Nitrates
    • Sulphur
    • Conservation of mineral resources
  • Energy Resources
    • Classification of energy
    • Production of conventional energy
    • General trends of energy production and consumption
    • Reserves and sources of energy
    • Coal
    • Nature and origin of coal
    • Constituents and kinds of coal
    • Coal fields and coal production
    • Byproducts of coal
    • Conservation of Coal
    • Petroleum
    • Nature and properties of petroleum
    • Origin and recovery
    • Exploration
    • Petroleum refining
    • Petroleum reserves
    • Producing areas
    • Consumption of petroleum
    • International trade
    • OPEC and its role in oil trade
    • Natural gas: Reserves and Production
    • Hydro-electricity
    • Advantages of hydro-electricity
    • Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity
    • Distribution of potential hydro-power
    • Hydro-electric power generation in India
    • Atomic (nuclear) energy
    • Atomic: source minerals: Uranium
    • World distribution of Uranium
    • Production of Uranium
    • Thorium
    • Production of Atomic (Nuclear) Energy
    • Nuclear Energy
    • Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy
    • Solar energy
    • Wind energy
    • Geothermal power
    • Tidal energy
    • Wave energy
    • Biomass energy
  • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
    • Performance of the agriculture sector
    • Types of farming in India
    • Dry zone farming
    • Organic farming
    • Cropping seasons in India
    • Cropping Pattern in India
    • Agriculture regionalization
    • Infrastructure factors: Seeds; Fertilizers; Irrigation
    • Land use pattern in India
    • Institutional Factors as land reform
    • Horticulture sector in India
    • Agricultural revolutions
    • Agricultural labours
    • Price Policy for Agriculture
    • Agricultural marketing
    • Agricultural Insurance
    • Agricultural Census
    • Major schemes in agricultural sector
    • National Policy for farmers
    • Impact of climate change on agriculture
    • What is sustainable agriculture?
    • Use of IT in agriculture
    • Agriculture Issues and Challenges
  • Recent Developments in Agriculture Field
    • NITI Aayog proposed the idea of taxation of agricultural income
    • Removing agricultural commodities from the essential commodities Act: NITI Aayog
    • Feminization of Agriculture
    • e-auction portal : e-Rakam for selling agricultural produce
    • “AGRI-UDAAN” – Food and agri-business acceleration 2.0 to bring startup revolution
    • APEDA (Agricultural and Processed Food  Products Export Development Authority Act)
    • SMAM (Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization)
    • Jute-ICARE Project
    • Project CHAMAN
    • Doubling the farmers income: Ashok Dalwai Committee
    • RKVY-RAFTAAR
    • Agro Irradiation Centers
    • Agricultural Marketing and Farm Friendly Reforms Index
    • National Food Security Act
    • Digitization and Agriculture
    • Direct Benefit Transfer in Fertilizer Sector
    • Draft Regulation on Fortification of Foods
    • Law Commission Recommendation on Food Laws
    • Concept of Modern Terminal Markets
    • Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
    • e-Pashuhaat Portal
    • Schemes of Bio-Tech Kisan and Cattle Genomics
    • RashtriyaGokul Mission
    • Mission Fingerling
    • Ornamental Fishing
    • Agricultural Science Congress
    • RubSiS
    • Ethanol Blending
    • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
    • Amendments to the NABARD Act, 1981
    • Revenue Insurance Scheme for Plantation Crops
    • Neem Coating of Urea
    • National Agriculture Market
  • Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth
    • Wheat
      • Conditions of growth
      • Varieties
      • Types of cultivation
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Rice
      • Conditions of growth
      • Varieties
      • Methods of cultivation
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Maize (Corn)
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Barley
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Oats
    • Rye
    • Beverages
    • Tea
      • Condition of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Coffee
      • Types of coffee
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Cocoa
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Tobacco
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Fibre Crops
    • Cotton
      • Varieties of cotton
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Jute
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
    • Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp
      • Raw Silk
      • Production pattern
    • States
    • Natural Rubber
      • Other sources of rubber
      • Plantations in South-east Asia
      • Production pattern
    • Sugarcane
      • Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • International trade
      • Sugarbeet—Conditions of growth
      • Production pattern
      • Sugar industry
      • Sugar consumption
      • International trade.
  • Industry
      • Industrial development
      • Iron and Steel Industry
      • Location of iron and steel industry
      • Development of iron manufacture
      • Distribution of iron and steel industry
      • Global steel production
      • International trade in Steel
      • Textile Industry
      • Cotton Textile Industry: Location of the industry
      • Recent trends in localization
      • Distribution and production of cotton textiles
      • Woollen textile industry: Location of the industry
      • Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture
      • Silk textile manufacturing
      • Synthetic (artificial) silk industry
      • Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics
      • Engineering Industries
      • Machine tools and machines: Areas of production
      • Industrial machinery: Textile machinery
      • Agricultural machinery
      • Manufacturing of transport equipment
      • Automobile industry
      • Shipbuilding
      • Aircrafts Industry
      • Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers
      • Phosphate fertilizers
      • Potash fertilizers
      • Agro-industries
      • Synthetic rubber industry
      • Pulp and paper industry: Essential conditions for pulp production
      • Production of paper and paper board
      • Newsprint
      • Cement industry
      • Distribution of cement industry
      • Recent trends: Main global competitors
      • Petroleum refining industry: Localization
      • Site selection of petroleum refineries
      • History of oil refineries
      • World pattern of oil refining
      • Petroleum products
      • Industrial Regions
      • Characteristics of industrial regions
      • Delimitation of an industrial region
      • Principal intrial regions of the world
      • Industrial regions of Anglo America—USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR
      • Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns.
  • Transport
      • Importance and development of transport
      • Means of transport
      • Transport costs and economic distance
      • Operating costs in transport
      • Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport
      • Profits and freight rates
      • Government’s transport policy
      • Ocean transport routes
      • Inland waterways
      • Main regions of inland waterways
      • Railways: Factors affecting the railroads
      • Distribution of railroads in the world
      • Air transport: Factors influencing air transport
      • Air transport in various continents
      • Pipeline transport
      • Petroleum (oil) pipelines
      • Gas pipelines
  • Recent Development in Transport Sector
      • Rural electrifi cation corporation: First green bond
      • Time and costs over runs of infrastructure projects
      • India’s First Mega Coastal Economic Zone (CEZ) to come up in Maharashtra
      • Logistic sector gets infrastructure status
      • AIIB approves $150 million for India infrastructure fund
      • Ro-Ro Ferry service
      • Bharatmala project for construction of 24,000 km of highway connecting Western and Eastern part
      • Union Ministry of shipping is planning
        to expand Logistics Data Bank (LDB)
      • Railways India Development Fund
      • National Infrastructure Investment Fund
      • Defence Innovation Fund
      • Flexi Fare Method in Railway
      • Rail Cadre Management
      • TRI-NETRA in Railways
      • National Rail Plan 2030
      • India’s First Caterpillar Train
      • Green corridor concept
      • Made in India ‘Medha’ train
      • Antyodaya Express
      • Smart Railway Station
      • Yatri Mitra Seva
      • National Highways Interconnectivity
      • Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme
      • Transit Oriented Development Policy
      • Logistic Effi ciency Enhancement Programme
      • Indian Bridge Management System
      • National Road Safety Policy
      • TARANG
      • E-trans
      • DEEP (Discovery of Efficient Electricity Pric
      • GARV II APP
      • Trading of Energy Saving Certifi cates
      • Powers for all 24x7
      • Draft National Electricity Plan
      • Habitat Commitment Index
  • Recent developments in Industrial Sector
      • Disinvestment of PSUs
      • Report titled “India’s Labor Market: A New Emphasis on Gainful Employment
      • Wage code Bill in line of recommendations of 2nd National Commission on Labor
      • CAR for the operation of Drones in India.
      • Draft Evaluation template for the star rating of Minor Minerals
      • Online database containing GIS-Enabled portal Maps land related information
      • Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor
      • Apex Corridor Developmental Authority
      • Tamra Portal
      • Mining Surveillance System
      • Coal Mitra
      • M-SIPS for Electronic Sector
      • Indian Enterprise Development Service
      • Trade Receivables Discounting System
      • SME Business Environment Index

World Regional geography

  • Continents Countries and Cities
    • Continents and Important Cities of the World
    • Important Cities Situated on the Banks of Rivers
    • Changed Names of Some Cities, States, and Countries
    • Distinctive Names of Countries/Towns— Geographical Epithets
    • Regional Grouping of Countries of the World
    • Economic Classification of Countries of the World
  • Location in NEWS
    • Govardhan Eco village
    • City livability index
    • Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat
    • Yethinahole Project
    • SMARTGRAM
    • Kaladan project in Myanmar
    • Doklam plateau
    • Gilgit-Ballistan
    • SCO Summit-Astana
    • Bosporus strait
    • Nathu-La
    • Lisbon
    • Mahadayi tribunal
    • Jaravas
    • Bengaluru declaration
    • SASEC road connectivity
    • Doklam
    • dams bottom trawling
    • Hambantota Port
    • World Petroleum Congress, Turkey
    • Kaleshwaram project
    • Mega food park in Kapurthala
    • Assam’s disturbed area tag
    • North Koel project
    • BIMSTEC
    • Conservation of Pagodas to Bagan
    • Bridge over Mechi River
    • Pangong Lake
    • World’s most liveable city
    • Asia Africa Corridor
    • Xiamen declaration
    • Sir Creek
    • Chakma, Majong Refugees Rohingya
    • Cleanest Iconic place Meenakshi temple
    • OBOR
    • Hambantota
    • Chahbahar Port
    • Gwadar Port
    • National Waterway – 4
    • Polavaram project
    • UNESCO creative cities network
    • Singapore Changi Naval base
    • India in Antarctica
    • Concept of Resilient Cities
    • Sericulture
    • Blizzards
    • New tectonic plate discovered
    • Report on Palaeo Channel of North West India
    • Cyclones in News

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