UPSC SYLLABUS

Geography (Geography (Prelims))

Subjects

  • Maths
  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • General Geography

    • Universe
      • Theories of development of Universe
      • Galaxy
      • Star formation
      • Planet formation
      • Solar system
      • Moon
      • Asteroid
      • Meteor
      • Kupier belt
      • Comets
      • Dwarf planets
    • Earth Evolution
      • Geological History of Earth
      • Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure
        • Evolution of Lithosphere
        • Evolution of Atmosphere
        • Evolution of Hydrosphere
      • Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians
      • Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects
      • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects
      • Time Zones, Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar
      • Eclipses - Solar, Lunar
      • Earth’s magnetic field
      • Earth’s Geological time scale
      • ORIGIN of LIFE

    Geomorphology

    • Earth’s Interior
      • Interior of the Earth
        • Crust
        • Mantle
        • Core
      • Sources of Information
        • Direct
        • Indirect - Earth Quake Waves Volcanoes    
      • Theories – Suess Theory
    • Geology and Rock system
      • Minerals
      • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
        • Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz, Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica , Olivine
        • Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak
        • Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity
        • Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non Ferrous
        • Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement
      • Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals)
        • Petrology
        • Rocks & landforms
        • Rocks & Soils
        • 3 Family of Rocks
        • Igneous
        • Sedimentary
        • Metamorphic
    • Geomorphic Processes
      • Earth’s Surface
        • Exogenic Forces
        • Endogenic Forces
        • Gradation , Degradation & Agradation
      • Endogenic Forces
        • Diastrophism
        • Orogenic
        • Epierogenic
        • Earthquakes
        • Plate movements
        • Volcanism
      • Exogenic Forces
        • Denudation Processes
        • Weathering
        • Mass movements
        • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
    • Earthquakes and Volcanism
      • Earthquakes
        • Waves: P,S, Body, Surface,
        • Shadow Zone
        • Types of Earthquakes
        • Effects
        • Frequency
        • Locating an Epicentre
      • Volcanism
        • Types
          • Shield
          • Composite
          • Caldera
          • Flood Basalt
          • Mid Ocean Ridge
        • Landforms (intrusive)
          • Batholiths
          • Lacoliths
          • Lopoliths
          • Phacoliths
          • Sills
          • Dykes
    • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
      • Theories
      • Continental Drift Theory
        • Alfred Wegner
        • Pangea, Panthalasa
        • Laurasia, Gondwanaland
      • Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory
        • Jigsaw Fit
        • Rocks of Same age across oceans
        • Tillite
        • Placer Deposits
        • Distribution of Fossils
      • Isostacy
      • Sea Floor Spreading
      • Forces of Drifting
        • Pole Fleeing Force
        • Tidal Force
      • Post Drift Studies
      • Convectional Current Theory
      • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
      • Plate Tectonics
        • Lithospheric Plates - Major Plate - Minor Plates
      • Plate Boundaries – Divergent – Convergent – Transform
      • Rates of Plate Movements
      • Force of plate movement
      • Indian Plate
    • Landforms and their evolution
      • Causes
        • Geomorphic Processes
        • Geomorphic Agents
      • Geomorphic Agent
        • Erosional or Destructional
        • Depositional or Constructional
      • Agents and their Impacts - Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents
      • Winds
        • As agents in Hot deserts
        • Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact
        • Erosional landforms
          • Pediments and Pediplains
          • Playas
          • Deflation Hollows and Caves
          • Mushroom , Table & Pedestal Rocks
      • Depositional Landforms
        • Barchans
        • Seif
        • Parabolic
        • Transverse
        • Longitudinal
      • Running Water
        • Erosional Landforms
          • Valleys
            • Rills
            • Gullies
            • Valleys – V Shape , Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary)
          • Potholes & Plunge pools
          • Incised or entrenched meanders
          • River Terraces – paired & unpaired
        • Depositional Landforms
          • Alluvial Fans
          • Delta
          • Flood plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars
          • Meansders, Slip off bank, Under cut bank
          • Oxbow lake
          • Braided Channels
      • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
        • Permeable Rocks
          • Percolation
          • Bedding Plains
      • Limestone and Dolomite Regions
        • Balkans , Adjacent to Adriatic regions
      • Erosional Landforms
        • Pools - Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements
        • Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzit, Caves and Tunnels
      • Depositional landforms
        • Stalactites
        • Stalagmites
        • Pillar Columns
      • Glaciers
        • Erosional Landforms
          • Cirque of Tarn Lakes
          • Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete
          • Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords
        • Depositional Landforms
          • Glacial Tills
          • Moraines
          • Eskers
          • Outwash Planes
          • Drumlins
      • Waves and Currents
        • High Rocky Coasts &
          Low Sedimentary Coasts
        • Erosional Landforms
          • Cliffs
          • Terraces
          • Caves
          • Stacks
        • Depositional Landforms
          • Beaches and Dunes
          • Bars, Barriers, Spits
      • Weathering
        • Factors
          • Geological
          • Climatic
          • Topograhic
          • Vegetative
        • Major Processes
          • Chemical
          • Physical or Mechanical
          • Biological
        • Chemical – Forces Chemical Action
          • Solution
          • Carbonation
          • Hydration
          • Oxidation & Reduction
        • Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure
          • Unloading & Expansion
          • Temperature changes and Expansion
          • Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging
          • Salt Weathering
      • Biological Weathering
        • Burrowing
        • Wedging
        • Plant Roots
      • Effects of Weathering
        • Exfoliation (Flakin) – Exfoliation Domes
      • Significance of Weathering
        • Soil Formation
        • Biomes and Biodiversity
        • Leaching / Enrichment
      • Mass Movements
        • Activating causes
        • Forms of movement – Heave Flow Slide
    • Landforms across the world
      • Rivers and lakes (Factual)
      • Mountain and Peaks (Factual)
      • Plateaus (Factual)

    Oceanography

    • Hydroshpere
      • Water on the Surface of the Earth
      • Hydrological Cycle
        • Component
        • Processes
    • Submarine Relief Features
      • Oceans
      • Relief of the Ocean floor
      • Divisions of the ocean floor
        • Continental Shelf
        • Continental Slope
        • Deep sea plain
        • Oceanic deep and Trenches
    • Minor relief features
      • Mid oceanic ridges
      • Seamount
      • Submarine canyons
      • Guyouts
      • Volcanic Islands
      • Fracture Zones
      • Hotspots
      • Coral Islands
      • Atoll
    • Temperature and Salinity
      • Temperature of the Ocean Water
        • Vertical
        • Spatial
        • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
          • Latitude
          • Unequal distribution of land & Water
          • Prevailing wind
          • Ocean Currents
          • Horizontal & Vertical Distribution
    • Salinity of the Ocean Water
      • Factors affecting salinity
        • Evaporation and precipitation
        • Fresh water flow from rivers
        • Ocean currents
          • Horizontals distribution of salinity
          • Vertical Distribution of salinity
      • Density of Ocean Waters
    • Waves, Ocean Currents, Tides
      • Movements of ocean Water                
      • Factors influencing Movement
        • Temperature
        • Salinity
        • Density
      • Motion – Horizontal and Vertical Currents
      • Waves
        • Motion of waves and water molecules
        • Characteristics of wave
        • Crest and Trough
        • Height
        • Amplitude
        • Period
        • Length
        • Speed
        • Frequency
      • Tides
        • Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides
        • Tidal currents
        • Types of Tides
          • Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed
          • Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides
        • Importance of Tides
      • Ocean Currents
        • Primary Force that initiates the movement
          • Heating of solar energy
          • Wind
          • Gravity
          • Coriolis force
        • Secondary force that influence the currents to flow
        • Types of ocean currents:
          • Surface currents & Deep water currents based on Depth
          • Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature
        • Major Ocean currents of the World
        • Effects of Ocean Currents
    • Marine Resources
      • Underground water resource
      • Surface water resources
      • Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources
      • Oceanic Water Resources (Marine Resource)
      • Utilization of oceans by man
      • Water consumption patterns
      • Conservation of Water Resources
      • Techniques of Water Conservation
    • Ocean Deposits and Corals
      • Terrigenous Deposits
      • Volcanic Deposits
      • Biotic deposits
        • Neritic
        • Pelagic ( Calcereous , Siliceous )
      • Abiotic Deposits
      • Coral Reefs
      • Great Barrier Reef

    Climatology

    • Atmosphere
      • Composition
      • Gases
      • Water Vapour
      • Dust Particles
      • Structure
      • Exosphere
      • Thermosphere
      • Mesosphere
      • Stratosphere
      • Troposphere
      • Altitude vs. Temperature
    • Inversion of Temperature
      • Temperature
      • Factors controlling Temp distribution
      • Distribution of Temp Month of January-July
      • Range of Temp Month of January-July
      • Inversion of Temperature
    • Insolation and Heat Budget
      • Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature Insolation
      • Aphelion and Perihelion
      • Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth
        • Day Season Year
        • Rotation on Axis, Angle of Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day
        • Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.
      • Heat Balance
      • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
        • Conduction
        • Convection
        • Advection
      • Terrestrial Radiation
      • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
      • Macro Budget
        • Albedo
        • Shortwave Radiation
        • Long wave Earth Radiation
      • Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface
    • Winds and Pressure belts
      • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Vertical variation of pressure
      • Horizontal distribution of pressure
      • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
      • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
      • Pressure Gradient Force
      • Frictional Force
      • Coriolis Force
      • Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation)
      • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
      • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating
      • Emergence of Pressure Belts
      • Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun
      • Distribution of continents & Oceans
      • Rotation of the Earth
      • Circulation
      • Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell , Ferrel Cell
      • Seasonal Wind
      • Local Wind
      • Land and Sea Breezes
      • Mountain and Valley Winds
    • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream
      • Air mass & fronts
      • Cyclones
      • Thunderstorms
      • Tornadoes
      • Monsoons
      • Fronts
    • Precipitation
      • Water in the Atmosphere
      • Water Vapour
      • Precipitation
      • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
      • Saturation – Dew Point
      • Evaporation and Condensation
      • Dew
      • Frost
      • Fog & Mist
      • Clouds
        • Types – Cirrus, Cumulus, Stratus, Nimbus
        • High – Cirrus, Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus
        • Middle – Altostratus, Altocumulus
        • Low – Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus
      • Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus
      • Precipitation
      • Rainfall, Snowfall, Sleet Hail, Hailstones
      • Types of Rainfall
      • Conventional
      • Orographic
      • Cyclonic
      • World Distribution of Rainfall
    • Climatic Zones of the World
      • Koppene’s Classification Climatic Zones
      • World Climate
      • The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate
      • The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical Marine Climates
      • The Savanna or Sudan Climate
      • The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates
      • The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate
      • The Temperate Continental (Steppe Climate)
      • The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin  (China Type Climate)
      • The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type Climate)
      • The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate
      • The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate
      • The Arctic or Polar Climate

    Bio-Geography

    • Soil Characteristics
      • Soil Characteristics
      • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
      • Stages of Soil Formation
      • Soil Forming Processes
      • Soil Profiles and Horizons
      • Soil Classification
      • Soil Erosion and Conservation
    • Vegetation resources
      • Types of natural vegetation
      • Forests
      • Significance of forests
      • Economic significance, Ecological significance
      • Cultural significance
      • Factors of forest development
      • Extent of forest cover
      • Classification of forests
      • Grasslands
      • Desert vegetation
      • Tundra Vegetation
      • Economic utilization of forests
      • Deforestation
      • Deforestation in tropical forests
      • Deforestation in temperate forests
      • Rate and extent of deforestation
      • Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation
      • Indirect deforestation
      • Underlying causes of deforestation
      • Conservation of forests
      • Forest conservation strategies
      • Reforestation
      • Monoculture plantation
      • Afforestation
      • Types of forestry
      • Social forestry
      • Agro-forestry

    Human and Economic Geography of the World

    • Demography and Census
      • Concept of human resources
      • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
        • Geographical Factors
          • Availability of water
          • Landforms
          • Climate
          • Soils
        • Economic Factors
          • Minerals
          • Urbanisation
          • Industrialisation
          • Socio-cultural factors
      • Population Growth
          • Growth of Population
          • Growth Rate of Population
          • Natural growth of Population
          • Positive Growth of Population
          • Negative Growth of Population
      • Components of Population change
        • Crude Birth Rate
        • Crude Death Rate
        • Migration – Place of Origin and Place of Destination
        • Immigration
        • Emigration
        • Push Factors and Pull Factors
      • Trends in Population Growth
      • Doubling time of world population
      • Spatial pattern of Population change
      • Impact of Population Change
      • Demographic Transition
        • Demographic Transition Theory
        • Demographic Cycle
      • Theories of population growth
        • Malthusian theory
        • Marxian theory
        • Demographic Transition Theory
        • Optimum population
        • Over-population
        • Under-population
      • Population Control Measures
      • World population distribution, Density and Growth
        • Continent-wide distribution of population
        • Pattern of population density globally
        • Population increase in the world
      • Population Composition
          • Sex composition
            • Sex Ratio
            • Natural Advantage vs Social Advantage
          • Age Structure
            • Age – sex Pyramid
            • Expanding Populations
            • Constant Population
            • Declining Popoulation
          • Literacy – literacy Rate
          • Rural Urban Composition
          • Occupational Structure
          • Religion based Composition
      • Population problems
        • Population problems of developing countries
        • Population problems of developed countries
        • Population Policies: of China, of India
      • Census 2011
        • Census Terminologies
        • Census of India important information
    • Human Development
      • Growth vs Development
      • The four pillars of Development
        • Equity
        • Sustainability
        • Productivity
        • Empowerment
      • Approaches to Human Development
      • Measuring Human Development
        • Income Approach
        • Welfare Approach
        • Basic Needs Approach
        • Capability Approach
      • Internation Comparisions of Human Development
    • Economic Activities
      • Primary Activities
        • Hunting and Gathering Pastoralism
        • Nomadic Herding
        • Commercial livestock Rearing
        • Agriculture
          • Subsistence Agriculture
          • Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
          • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
          • Planation Agriculture
          • Extensive Commercial Grain Cultivation
          • Mixed Farming
          • Dairy Farming
          • Mediterranean Agriculture
          • Viticulture
          • Market Gardening and Horticulture – Truck Farming
          • Cooperative Farming
          • Collective Farming
        • Mining
          • Factors affecting Mining
          • Methods of Mining – Open Cast and underground mining
      • Secondary Activities
        • Manufacturing
        • Characteristics of Modern large scale Manufacturing
        • Specialisation of Skills/ methods of Production, Mechanisation  - Technological Innovation 
        • Access to market, Access to labour Supply, Access to Sources of Energy, Access to Transportaion and communication Facilities
        • Government Policy
      • Classification of Manufacturing Industries
        • Industries based on size
          • Small Scale manufacturing
          • Large Scale manufacturing
        • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials
          • Agro Based industries
          • Mineral Based Industries
          • Chemical based Industries
          • Forest based Raw material using industries
          • Animal Based industries
        • Industries based on Output/Product
        • Industries based on ownership
      • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities                
        • Types of Tertiary Activities
          • Retail trading
          • Trade and commerce
          • Wholesale Trading
          • Transport
          • Communication
          • Services
        • People engaged in tertiary Activities
          • Tourism
          • Medical Services
          • Quaternary Activities
          • Quinary Activities
        • Concept of Digital Divide
    • Transport and Communication
      • Transport
        • Modes of Transportation
        • Land Transport
        • Roads
        • Railways
        • Water Transport
        • Sea Routes
        • Inland Waterways
        • Air Transport
        • Pipelines
      • Communications
        • Satellite communication
        • Cyber space internet
    • International Trade
      • History of international Trade
      • Basis of International Trade
        • Difference in national resources
        • Population Factors
        • Stage of Economic Development
        • Extent of Foreign Investment
        • Transport
      • Important aspects of International Trade
        • Volume of Trade
        • Composition of Trade
        • Direction of Trade
        • Balance of Trade
      • Types of International Trade
      • Case of Free Trade
      • WTO – World Trade Organisation and Regional Trade Blocs
      • Gateways of International Trade
        • Ports
        • Industrial Ports
        • Commercial Ports
        • Comprehensive Ports
        • Inland Ports
        • Out Ports
        • Oil Ports
        • Port of call
        • Packet station
        • Entrepot Ports
        • Naval Ports
    • Settlement
      • Types and Patterns of settlements
        • Compact of Nucleated Settlements
        • Dispersed settlement
      • Rural Settlements                                   
        • Factors affecting location of rural settlements
        • Patterns of Rural settlements
      • Urban Settlements
        • Classification of Urban Settlements
        • Factors affecting location of rural settlements
        • Functions of Urban Centre
        • Classification of Towns on the basis of Forms
        • Types of Urban Settlements
          • Town, City, Conurbation, Megalopolis, Million City
      • Issues of Urbanization in India
      • Rural Urban Migration
      • Emergence of Slums
      • Inclusive Cities/Smart cities

    Indian Geography

    • Physiography of India
      • Geological Region
      • Location
      • Physiographic Sub-Units
        • Himalayans
        • Northern Plains
        • Peninsular Plateau
        • Thar Desert
        • Coastal Plain
        • The Islands
      • Mountain System
        • Classification of The Himalayan System
        • Regional Division of the Himalaya
      • The Peninsular - Peninsular Plateaus
      • Plains - Northern Plains of India          
      • Lakes
      • Deserts
      • Indian Coasts and Islands
    • Drainage System
      • Classification of Drainage
      • Himalayan Drainage
      • Indus river system
      • Indus drainage system
      • Ganga River System
      • Brahmaputra river system
      • Peninsular River System
      • East flowing Rivers
      • West flowing Rivers
      • Mains Rivers and their tributaries
      • Famous cities and river banks
    • Climate
      • Factors influencing the climate of India
      • Monsoon
      • Mechanism of the Monsoon
        • Classical Theory
        • Modern theory
        • Air mass theory
        • Jet stream theory
      • EL NINO and LA NINA
      • Seasonal rhythm
      • Koppen’s Climatic classification
      • Indian Droughts and Floods
    • Soils in India
      • Soil Acidity
      • Soil textures
      • Minerals of Soil
      • Soil Erosion
      • Soil Conservation
    • Natural Vegetation
      • Vegetation
      • Mangroves
      • Distribution of Forest Area
      • Forest Problems in India
    • Population
      • Size, growth rate and distribution of population
      • India in World Population
      • Demographic transition
      • Census in India
      • Ranking of States and Union
      • Territories by population: 2001 & 2011
      • Population Growth Rates
      • Population: States and UT
      • Decadal growth rate
      • National Population Policy                   
      • Density of population
      • Literacy
      • Literacy in major states
      • Literacy rate in India: 1951-2011
      • Ranking of States and UTs by 206 literacy rate: 2011
      • Gender composition of the Population
      • Trends in Sex Ratio in India
      • Child sex ratio in age group 0-6 yrs
      • Sex ratio of age 7 years and above population
      • Old Age People
      • Health Indicators
    • Settlements and Urbanization
      • Rural Settlements
      • Factors affecting settlement patterns
      • Settlement types
      • Urbanization
      • Urban Agglomeration / Cities
    • Land Resource
      • Land-use
      • Land capability classification
      • Causes of Land Degradation
      • Impact of Land Degradation
      • Steps taken by GOI
      • Sustainable Land Management
    • Mineral Resource
      • Types of minerals: Metallic minerals
      • Non-metallic mineral
      • Distribution of minerals and mining regions
      • Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore
      • Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous
      • Manganese
      • Chromium
      • Nickel
      • Tungsten
      • Antimony
      • Copper
      • Bauxite and Aluminium
      • Zinc; Lead
      • Tin
      • Gold
      • Silver
      • Platinum
      • Mineral chemicals
      • Mica
      • Potash
      • Phosphate
      • Nitrates
      • Sulphur
      • Conservation of mineral resources
    • Energy Resources
      • Classification of energy
      • Production of conventional energy
      • General trends of energy production and consumption
      • Reserves and sources of energy
      • Coal
      • Nature and origin of coal
      • Constituents and kinds of coal
      • Coal fields and coal production
      • Byproducts of coal
      • Conservation of Coal
      • Petroleum
      • Nature and properties of petroleum
      • Origin and recovery
      • Exploration
      • Petroleum refining
      • Petroleum reserves
      • Producing areas
      • Consumption of petroleum
      • International trade
      • OPEC and its role in oil trade
      • Natural gas: Reserves and Production
      • Hydro-electricity
      • Advantages of hydro-electricity
      • Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity
      • Distribution of potential hydro-power
      • Hydro-electric power generation in India
      • Atomic (nuclear) energy
      • Atomic: source minerals: Uranium
      • World distribution of Uranium
      • Production of Uranium
      • Thorium
      • Production of Atomic (Nuclear) Energy
      • Nuclear Energy
      • Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy
      • Solar energy
      • Wind energy
      • Geothermal power
      • Tidal energy
      • Wave energy
      • Biomass energy
    • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
      • Performance of the agriculture sector
      • Types of farming in India
      • Dry zone farming
      • Organic farming
      • Cropping seasons in India
      • Cropping Pattern in India
      • Agriculture regionalization
      • Infrastructure factors: Seeds; Fertilizers; Irrigation
      • Land use pattern in India
      • Institutional Factors as land reform
      • Horticulture sector in India
      • Agricultural revolutions
      • Agricultural labours
      • Price Policy for Agriculture
      • Agricultural marketing
      • Agricultural Insurance
      • Agricultural Census
      • Major schemes in agricultural sector
      • National Policy for farmers
      • Impact of climate change on agriculture
      • What is sustainable agriculture?
      • Use of IT in agriculture
      • Agriculture Issues and Challenges
    • Recent Developments in Agriculture Field
      • NITI Aayog proposed the idea of taxation of agricultural income
      • Removing agricultural commodities from the essential commodities Act: NITI Aayog
      • Feminization of Agriculture
      • e-auction portal : e-Rakam for selling agricultural produce
      • “AGRI-UDAAN” – Food and agri-business acceleration 2.0 to bring startup revolution
      • APEDA (Agricultural and Processed Food  Products Export Development Authority Act)
      • SMAM (Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization)
      • Jute-ICARE Project
      • Project CHAMAN
      • Doubling the farmers income: Ashok Dalwai Committee
      • RKVY-RAFTAAR
      • Agro Irradiation Centers
      • Agricultural Marketing and Farm Friendly Reforms Index
      • National Food Security Act
      • Digitization and Agriculture
      • Direct Benefit Transfer in Fertilizer Sector
      • Draft Regulation on Fortification of Foods
      • Law Commission Recommendation on Food Laws
      • Concept of Modern Terminal Markets
      • Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
      • e-Pashuhaat Portal
      • Schemes of Bio-Tech Kisan and Cattle Genomics
      • RashtriyaGokul Mission
      • Mission Fingerling
      • Ornamental Fishing
      • Agricultural Science Congress
      • RubSiS
      • Ethanol Blending
      • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
      • Amendments to the NABARD Act, 1981
      • Revenue Insurance Scheme for Plantation Crops
      • Neem Coating of Urea
      • National Agriculture Market
    • Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth
      • Wheat
        • Conditions of growth
        • Varieties
        • Types of cultivation
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Rice
        • Conditions of growth
        • Varieties
        • Methods of cultivation
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Maize (Corn)
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Barley
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Oats
      • Rye
      • Beverages
      • Tea
        • Condition of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Coffee
        • Types of coffee
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Cocoa
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Tobacco
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Fibre Crops
      • Cotton
        • Varieties of cotton
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Jute
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
      • Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp
        • Raw Silk
        • Production pattern
      • States
      • Natural Rubber
        • Other sources of rubber
        • Plantations in South-east Asia
        • Production pattern
      • Sugarcane
        • Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • International trade
        • Sugarbeet—Conditions of growth
        • Production pattern
        • Sugar industry
        • Sugar consumption
        • International trade.
    • Industry
        • Industrial development
        • Iron and Steel Industry
        • Location of iron and steel industry
        • Development of iron manufacture
        • Distribution of iron and steel industry
        • Global steel production
        • International trade in Steel
        • Textile Industry
        • Cotton Textile Industry: Location of the industry
        • Recent trends in localization
        • Distribution and production of cotton textiles
        • Woollen textile industry: Location of the industry
        • Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture
        • Silk textile manufacturing
        • Synthetic (artificial) silk industry
        • Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics
        • Engineering Industries
        • Machine tools and machines: Areas of production
        • Industrial machinery: Textile machinery
        • Agricultural machinery
        • Manufacturing of transport equipment
        • Automobile industry
        • Shipbuilding
        • Aircrafts Industry
        • Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers
        • Phosphate fertilizers
        • Potash fertilizers
        • Agro-industries
        • Synthetic rubber industry
        • Pulp and paper industry: Essential conditions for pulp production
        • Production of paper and paper board
        • Newsprint
        • Cement industry
        • Distribution of cement industry
        • Recent trends: Main global competitors
        • Petroleum refining industry: Localization
        • Site selection of petroleum refineries
        • History of oil refineries
        • World pattern of oil refining
        • Petroleum products
        • Industrial Regions
        • Characteristics of industrial regions
        • Delimitation of an industrial region
        • Principal intrial regions of the world
        • Industrial regions of Anglo America—USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR
        • Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns.
    • Transport
        • Importance and development of transport
        • Means of transport
        • Transport costs and economic distance
        • Operating costs in transport
        • Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport
        • Profits and freight rates
        • Government’s transport policy
        • Ocean transport routes
        • Inland waterways
        • Main regions of inland waterways
        • Railways: Factors affecting the railroads
        • Distribution of railroads in the world
        • Air transport: Factors influencing air transport
        • Air transport in various continents
        • Pipeline transport
        • Petroleum (oil) pipelines
        • Gas pipelines
    • Recent Development in Transport Sector
        • Rural electrifi cation corporation: First green bond
        • Time and costs over runs of infrastructure projects
        • India’s First Mega Coastal Economic Zone (CEZ) to come up in Maharashtra
        • Logistic sector gets infrastructure status
        • AIIB approves $150 million for India infrastructure fund
        • Ro-Ro Ferry service
        • Bharatmala project for construction of 24,000 km of highway connecting Western and Eastern part
        • Union Ministry of shipping is planning
          to expand Logistics Data Bank (LDB)
        • Railways India Development Fund
        • National Infrastructure Investment Fund
        • Defence Innovation Fund
        • Flexi Fare Method in Railway
        • Rail Cadre Management
        • TRI-NETRA in Railways
        • National Rail Plan 2030
        • India’s First Caterpillar Train
        • Green corridor concept
        • Made in India ‘Medha’ train
        • Antyodaya Express
        • Smart Railway Station
        • Yatri Mitra Seva
        • National Highways Interconnectivity
        • Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme
        • Transit Oriented Development Policy
        • Logistic Effi ciency Enhancement Programme
        • Indian Bridge Management System
        • National Road Safety Policy
        • TARANG
        • E-trans
        • DEEP (Discovery of Efficient Electricity Pric
        • GARV II APP
        • Trading of Energy Saving Certifi cates
        • Powers for all 24x7
        • Draft National Electricity Plan
        • Habitat Commitment Index
    • Recent developments in Industrial Sector
        • Disinvestment of PSUs
        • Report titled “India’s Labor Market: A New Emphasis on Gainful Employment
        • Wage code Bill in line of recommendations of 2nd National Commission on Labor
        • CAR for the operation of Drones in India.
        • Draft Evaluation template for the star rating of Minor Minerals
        • Online database containing GIS-Enabled portal Maps land related information
        • Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor
        • Apex Corridor Developmental Authority
        • Tamra Portal
        • Mining Surveillance System
        • Coal Mitra
        • M-SIPS for Electronic Sector
        • Indian Enterprise Development Service
        • Trade Receivables Discounting System
        • SME Business Environment Index

    World Regional geography

    • Continents Countries and Cities
      • Continents and Important Cities of the World
      • Important Cities Situated on the Banks of Rivers
      • Changed Names of Some Cities, States, and Countries
      • Distinctive Names of Countries/Towns— Geographical Epithets
      • Regional Grouping of Countries of the World
      • Economic Classification of Countries of the World
    • Location in NEWS
      • Govardhan Eco village
      • City livability index
      • Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat
      • Yethinahole Project
      • SMARTGRAM
      • Kaladan project in Myanmar
      • Doklam plateau
      • Gilgit-Ballistan
      • SCO Summit-Astana
      • Bosporus strait
      • Nathu-La
      • Lisbon
      • Mahadayi tribunal
      • Jaravas
      • Bengaluru declaration
      • SASEC road connectivity
      • Doklam
      • dams bottom trawling
      • Hambantota Port
      • World Petroleum Congress, Turkey
      • Kaleshwaram project
      • Mega food park in Kapurthala
      • Assam’s disturbed area tag
      • North Koel project
      • BIMSTEC
      • Conservation of Pagodas to Bagan
      • Bridge over Mechi River
      • Pangong Lake
      • World’s most liveable city
      • Asia Africa Corridor
      • Xiamen declaration
      • Sir Creek
      • Chakma, Majong Refugees Rohingya
      • Cleanest Iconic place Meenakshi temple
      • OBOR
      • Hambantota
      • Chahbahar Port
      • Gwadar Port
      • National Waterway – 4
      • Polavaram project
      • UNESCO creative cities network
      • Singapore Changi Naval base
      • India in Antarctica
      • Concept of Resilient Cities
      • Sericulture
      • Blizzards
      • New tectonic plate discovered
      • Report on Palaeo Channel of North West India
      • Cyclones in News
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