UPSC SYLLABUS

Geography (Economic & Human Geography (Mains))

Subjects

  • Maths
  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • Basics of Economic Geography

    • Definition, Development and scope of Economic Geography
    • Type of Economic Activities
      • Primary Activities
      • Secondary Activities
      • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities                
    • Recent Themes and Concepts in Economic Geography
    • Agglomeration Economies
    • Neo-liberalism
    • Rise of macro regional Economic block
    • Ethnicity in Economic Geography
    • Concept of digital divide

    Resource

    • Land Resource
      • Land-use Pattern and changes
      • Problems of Land Resources:
        • Land Degradation: Causes and Impact
        • Concept of Land Degradation Neutrality
      • Land Use Planning and Policy
    • Water Resources
      • Extent of Water Resources
      • Water Resource Potential of India
      • Utilization and related problems (Pollution)
      • Inter- state water disputes in India
      • Water management, conservation and Development
      • National Water Policy
    • Mineral Resources
      • Types of Mineral Resources
      • Distribution Pattern of Minerals in World
      • Major Mineral Belts of India
      • Problems related to mining
      • Conservation of Mineral Resources
      • National Mineral Policy, 2019
    • Energy resources
      • Classification of Energy Resources
      • Distribution and production trend of major energy Resources
        • Coal
        • Petroleum
        • Natural gas
      • Strategic Oil Reserves
      • Exploration of Coal Bed Methane
      • Non-Conventional Energy Resources
        • Solar Energy
        • Wind Energy
        • Geothermal
      • Nuclear Energy Resources: Challenges and prospects in India
    • Recent Debates on Resources
      • Geopolitics of Natural Resources
      • Globalisation and Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources
      • Depletion of natural resources versus Economic Growth
      • Changing Pattern of Land Use and Causes
      • Water Crisis: Causes, Conflicts and Resolution
      • Energy Crisis
      • Challenges and constraints faced by coal sector
      • Challenges in Hydropower sector
      • Renewable Energy: way toward sustainability
      • Energy Security: Energy Policy and strategy in India

    Agriculture

    • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
      • Cropping pattern
      • Agriculture Productivity
      • Agriculture Intensity
      • Land capability
    • Location of agriculture
    • World Agriculture Typologies
    • Salient features of Indian Agriculture
    • Problems of Indian Agriculture
    • Factor Affecting Agriculture
      • Geographical factors
      • Institutional factors
      • Technological factors
    • Major Crops and conditions for growth
    • Regionalization of Agriculture
    • Various Revolutions in Agriculture Sector
      • Green Revolution
        • Impact of Green Revolution
        • Evergreen Revolution
      • White Revolution
      • Operation Flood
      • Blue Revolution
    • Agricultural Policies and Initiatives
      • Minimum Support Price: Benefits and Challenges
      • Agriculture Market Produce Committees: Issues
      • National Agriculture Market (NAM)
      • Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitating) Act (APLM), 2017
      • National Livestock Mission
      • National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD) 
      • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
      • Agriculture Export Policy, 2018
      • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
      • Pradhan Mantri Annadataaay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (Pm-Aasha)
      • Operation Greens
      • Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)
      • Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).
      • Agriculture Census
    • Food Security
      • Nature of Food Insecurity: Duration, Severity and types
      • Trend and Pattern in Food Insecurity
      • Causes and Geography of famine
      • Key Dimension of food security
      • Efforts and Remedies to ensure food security
    • Agricultural in Discussion
      • Controversy over GM Crops: Benefits and Issues
      • Impact of climate Change on Agriculture
      • Evergreen Green Revolution for Sustainable Livelihood
      • Rainbow Revolution
      • Blue Revolution: Impact on Rural Economy
      • Climate Smart Agriculture
      • Need of Agriculture Diversification
      • Mixed farming: Hedging Agriculture Risks
      • Problems and Prospects of dry-zone agriculture
      • Plantation Agriculture: Issues involved
      • Challenges of increasing Agriculture Productivity and Production
      • New ‘White Revolution’: Need, Scope and Challenges
      • Contract Farming: Benefits and Challenges
      • Role of infrastructural and institutional
        factors in the recent transformation of Indian agriculture         
      • Impact of advanced agricultural technologies on the Environment
      • Soil Health Card scheme and  rationalisation of fertilizer subsidies
      • Food Security: India’s Vulnerability and way-out

    Industry

    • Classification of Industries
    • Factors affecting location of Industries
      • Weber’s Model of Industrial Location
      • Losch theory of Profit Maximization
    • Various Industries: Location, Prospects and Challenges
      • Iron and Steel Industry
      • Textile Industry
      • Jute Industry
      • Auto Mobile Industry
      • Fertilizer Industry
      • Agro-based Industries
      • Other Industries
    • Industrial Regions and its Characteristics
      • Major Industrial Regions of the World
      • Industrial Regions of India
      • Industrial Policies and Development
      • A Scheme for Promotion of Innovation, Rural Industry and Entrepreneurship
      • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries
      • Stand Up India
      • Fourth Industrial Revolution
      • Role of Industrial development in minimizing regional inequalities
      • Problems of Industrial regions
      • Factors behind the growth and present location pattern of automobile industry in India                                                                                                                
      • Pharmaceutical industry: Locational pattern and reasons
      • Sugar industry: Problems and challenges of current pattern
      • Food Processing Industry: Untapped Potential
      • Agro based Industries: Problems and Prospects
      • Impact of agro-based industries on cropping pattern
      • Tourism: Prospects and Impact on Environment

    Transport and Communication

    • Land Transport
      • Roads
        • Classification of roads
        • National Highway Grid
        • Problems and Prospects
        • Bharatmala Pariyojana
      • Railways
        • Significance and Problems of Indian Railways
        • Dedicated Freight Corridors
        • Privatisation of Railways
      • Pipelines
        • Significance, Distribution and Challenges
      • Water Transport
        • Inland: National Waterways
          • Factors affecting Inland waterways
          • Significance and Challenges
          • Jal Marg Vikas Project
        • Seaways and Oceanic Route
          • Shipping
          • Major Ports of World and India
          • Challenges in Port Development
          • Sagarmala Project
        • Air Transport
          • National Airways
            • National Civil Aviation Policy
            • Regional Connectivity Scheme (UDAN)
            • International Airways
          • Communications
            • Communication Infrastructure
            • National Telecom Policy
          • Major Issues in Transport and Communication
            • Role of Transport in Regional Development
            • Need for holistic transport planning to improve the city’s mobility
            • Carbon footprint of the transport sector
            • Road Transport: Investment Challenges
            • Inland Waterways: Development challenges and prospects
            • Ports: Inclusive centres of economic  development
            • Problem of Pot Development
            • Analysis of Sagarmala Project
            • Environmental issues of maritime shipping
            • Role of Transport in Regional Development
            • Eco Tourism: Way toward Responsible Tourism
          • Trade
          • World Trade Pattern
            • Major Oceanic Trade Routes
          • Basis of Overseas Trade
          • Types of International Trade
            • Bilateral Trade
            • Multilateral Trade
          • Various Organisation Related to International Trade
          • Regional Trade Blocks
          • Foreign Trade: India
            • Trends in India’s Foreign Trade
            • Composition Indian Trade
            • Direction of India’s Foreign Trade
          • Trade Pattern and Policies
            • Changing Pattern of India’s foreign trade
            • Challenges and prospects of foreign trade of India
            • Impact of trade liberalisation on the geographical distribution of industries
            • Neo-liberal reforms in Africa: Race of India and China

    Demography and Census World & India

    • Concept of human resources
    • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
    • Population growth
      • Theories of Population Growth
        • Malthusian Theory
        • Marxian Theory
        • Demographic transition theory
        • Optimum Population Theory
      • Size, growth rate and distribution of population
      • Components of Population growth
    • Demographic Dividend
      • Demographic Window of Opportunity
    • Components of Population change
      • Birth Rate
      • Death Rate (Mortality Rate)
      • Migration
        • Factors responsible for migration
        • Type of Migration
        • Issues related to migration
        • Migration pattern in world and India
        • World Migration Report, 2018
      • Population Composition
        • Age Sex Pyramids & their significance
        • Trends and Pattern in Sex Ratio
        • Initiatives to improve Sex ratio
        • Trends and Patterns in Literacy
        • Government’s Efforts
      • Fertility Rate
      • Impact of Population Change
      • Population Policies
        • Need for revision of National Population Policy
      • Population problems
        • Global Nutrition Report, 2018
        • Global Hunger Index

    Settlements and Urbanization

    • Rural Settlements
      • Classification of Rural Settlements
      • Function of Rural Settlements
      • Patterns of Rural Settlements
      • Changing Pattern of Rural Settlements
    • Urban Settlements
      • Origin of Urban Settlements- Functional  Classification of Towns
      • Urbanization
        • Indian Mega Cities
        • Central Place Theory
        • Primate City
        • Morphology of Indian Cities
        • Conurbations
        • Urban Slums
        • Rural Urban Fringe
        • Rural Urban Continuum
      • Issues related to Urbanization in India
        • Habitat – III Conference
      • Schemes
        • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana or Housing for All Scheme
        • Smart City Initiative
        • AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
        • HRIDAY (Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana)

    Regional Planning and Development

    • Concept of Region
    • Types of Regions
    • Issues of Regional Imbalances
    • Strategies for Regional Development

    Human Development

    • Growth v/s Development
    • Approaches to Human Development
    • Human Development Index
    • International comparisons of Human Development
      • World Development Report, 2019
    • Human Development Report    
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