UPSC SYLLABUS

Geography (Economic & Human Geography (Mains))

Basics of Economic Geography

  • Definition, Development and scope of Economic Geography
  • Type of Economic Activities
    • Primary Activities
    • Secondary Activities
    • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities                
  • Recent Themes and Concepts in Economic Geography
  • Agglomeration Economies
  • Neo-liberalism
  • Rise of macro regional Economic block
  • Ethnicity in Economic Geography
  • Concept of digital divide

Resource

  • Land Resource
    • Land-use Pattern and changes
    • Problems of Land Resources:
      • Land Degradation: Causes and Impact
      • Concept of Land Degradation Neutrality
    • Land Use Planning and Policy
  • Water Resources
    • Extent of Water Resources
    • Water Resource Potential of India
    • Utilization and related problems (Pollution)
    • Inter- state water disputes in India
    • Water management, conservation and Development
    • National Water Policy
  • Mineral Resources
    • Types of Mineral Resources
    • Distribution Pattern of Minerals in World
    • Major Mineral Belts of India
    • Problems related to mining
    • Conservation of Mineral Resources
    • National Mineral Policy, 2019
  • Energy resources
    • Classification of Energy Resources
    • Distribution and production trend of major energy Resources
      • Coal
      • Petroleum
      • Natural gas
    • Strategic Oil Reserves
    • Exploration of Coal Bed Methane
    • Non-Conventional Energy Resources
      • Solar Energy
      • Wind Energy
      • Geothermal
    • Nuclear Energy Resources: Challenges and prospects in India
  • Recent Debates on Resources
    • Geopolitics of Natural Resources
    • Globalisation and Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources
    • Depletion of natural resources versus Economic Growth
    • Changing Pattern of Land Use and Causes
    • Water Crisis: Causes, Conflicts and Resolution
    • Energy Crisis
    • Challenges and constraints faced by coal sector
    • Challenges in Hydropower sector
    • Renewable Energy: way toward sustainability
    • Energy Security: Energy Policy and strategy in India

Agriculture

  • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
    • Cropping pattern
    • Agriculture Productivity
    • Agriculture Intensity
    • Land capability
  • Location of agriculture
  • World Agriculture Typologies
  • Salient features of Indian Agriculture
  • Problems of Indian Agriculture
  • Factor Affecting Agriculture
    • Geographical factors
    • Institutional factors
    • Technological factors
  • Major Crops and conditions for growth
  • Regionalization of Agriculture
  • Various Revolutions in Agriculture Sector
    • Green Revolution
      • Impact of Green Revolution
      • Evergreen Revolution
    • White Revolution
    • Operation Flood
    • Blue Revolution
  • Agricultural Policies and Initiatives
    • Minimum Support Price: Benefits and Challenges
    • Agriculture Market Produce Committees: Issues
    • National Agriculture Market (NAM)
    • Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitating) Act (APLM), 2017
    • National Livestock Mission
    • National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD) 
    • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
    • Agriculture Export Policy, 2018
    • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
    • Pradhan Mantri Annadataaay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (Pm-Aasha)
    • Operation Greens
    • Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)
    • Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).
    • Agriculture Census
  • Food Security
    • Nature of Food Insecurity: Duration, Severity and types
    • Trend and Pattern in Food Insecurity
    • Causes and Geography of famine
    • Key Dimension of food security
    • Efforts and Remedies to ensure food security
  • Agricultural in Discussion
    • Controversy over GM Crops: Benefits and Issues
    • Impact of climate Change on Agriculture
    • Evergreen Green Revolution for Sustainable Livelihood
    • Rainbow Revolution
    • Blue Revolution: Impact on Rural Economy
    • Climate Smart Agriculture
    • Need of Agriculture Diversification
    • Mixed farming: Hedging Agriculture Risks
    • Problems and Prospects of dry-zone agriculture
    • Plantation Agriculture: Issues involved
    • Challenges of increasing Agriculture Productivity and Production
    • New ‘White Revolution’: Need, Scope and Challenges
    • Contract Farming: Benefits and Challenges
    • Role of infrastructural and institutional
      factors in the recent transformation of Indian agriculture         
    • Impact of advanced agricultural technologies on the Environment
    • Soil Health Card scheme and  rationalisation of fertilizer subsidies
    • Food Security: India’s Vulnerability and way-out

Industry

  • Classification of Industries
  • Factors affecting location of Industries
    • Weber’s Model of Industrial Location
    • Losch theory of Profit Maximization
  • Various Industries: Location, Prospects and Challenges
    • Iron and Steel Industry
    • Textile Industry
    • Jute Industry
    • Auto Mobile Industry
    • Fertilizer Industry
    • Agro-based Industries
    • Other Industries
  • Industrial Regions and its Characteristics
    • Major Industrial Regions of the World
    • Industrial Regions of India
    • Industrial Policies and Development
    • A Scheme for Promotion of Innovation, Rural Industry and Entrepreneurship
    • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries
    • Stand Up India
    • Fourth Industrial Revolution
    • Role of Industrial development in minimizing regional inequalities
    • Problems of Industrial regions
    • Factors behind the growth and present location pattern of automobile industry in India                                                                                                                
    • Pharmaceutical industry: Locational pattern and reasons
    • Sugar industry: Problems and challenges of current pattern
    • Food Processing Industry: Untapped Potential
    • Agro based Industries: Problems and Prospects
    • Impact of agro-based industries on cropping pattern
    • Tourism: Prospects and Impact on Environment

Transport and Communication

  • Land Transport
    • Roads
      • Classification of roads
      • National Highway Grid
      • Problems and Prospects
      • Bharatmala Pariyojana
    • Railways
      • Significance and Problems of Indian Railways
      • Dedicated Freight Corridors
      • Privatisation of Railways
    • Pipelines
      • Significance, Distribution and Challenges
    • Water Transport
      • Inland: National Waterways
        • Factors affecting Inland waterways
        • Significance and Challenges
        • Jal Marg Vikas Project
      • Seaways and Oceanic Route
        • Shipping
        • Major Ports of World and India
        • Challenges in Port Development
        • Sagarmala Project
      • Air Transport
        • National Airways
          • National Civil Aviation Policy
          • Regional Connectivity Scheme (UDAN)
          • International Airways
        • Communications
          • Communication Infrastructure
          • National Telecom Policy
        • Major Issues in Transport and Communication
          • Role of Transport in Regional Development
          • Need for holistic transport planning to improve the city’s mobility
          • Carbon footprint of the transport sector
          • Road Transport: Investment Challenges
          • Inland Waterways: Development challenges and prospects
          • Ports: Inclusive centres of economic  development
          • Problem of Pot Development
          • Analysis of Sagarmala Project
          • Environmental issues of maritime shipping
          • Role of Transport in Regional Development
          • Eco Tourism: Way toward Responsible Tourism
        • Trade
        • World Trade Pattern
          • Major Oceanic Trade Routes
        • Basis of Overseas Trade
        • Types of International Trade
          • Bilateral Trade
          • Multilateral Trade
        • Various Organisation Related to International Trade
        • Regional Trade Blocks
        • Foreign Trade: India
          • Trends in India’s Foreign Trade
          • Composition Indian Trade
          • Direction of India’s Foreign Trade
        • Trade Pattern and Policies
          • Changing Pattern of India’s foreign trade
          • Challenges and prospects of foreign trade of India
          • Impact of trade liberalisation on the geographical distribution of industries
          • Neo-liberal reforms in Africa: Race of India and China

Demography and Census World & India

  • Concept of human resources
  • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
  • Population growth
    • Theories of Population Growth
      • Malthusian Theory
      • Marxian Theory
      • Demographic transition theory
      • Optimum Population Theory
    • Size, growth rate and distribution of population
    • Components of Population growth
  • Demographic Dividend
    • Demographic Window of Opportunity
  • Components of Population change
    • Birth Rate
    • Death Rate (Mortality Rate)
    • Migration
      • Factors responsible for migration
      • Type of Migration
      • Issues related to migration
      • Migration pattern in world and India
      • World Migration Report, 2018
    • Population Composition
      • Age Sex Pyramids & their significance
      • Trends and Pattern in Sex Ratio
      • Initiatives to improve Sex ratio
      • Trends and Patterns in Literacy
      • Government’s Efforts
    • Fertility Rate
    • Impact of Population Change
    • Population Policies
      • Need for revision of National Population Policy
    • Population problems
      • Global Nutrition Report, 2018
      • Global Hunger Index

Settlements and Urbanization

  • Rural Settlements
    • Classification of Rural Settlements
    • Function of Rural Settlements
    • Patterns of Rural Settlements
    • Changing Pattern of Rural Settlements
  • Urban Settlements
    • Origin of Urban Settlements- Functional  Classification of Towns
    • Urbanization
      • Indian Mega Cities
      • Central Place Theory
      • Primate City
      • Morphology of Indian Cities
      • Conurbations
      • Urban Slums
      • Rural Urban Fringe
      • Rural Urban Continuum
    • Issues related to Urbanization in India
      • Habitat – III Conference
    • Schemes
      • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana or Housing for All Scheme
      • Smart City Initiative
      • AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
      • HRIDAY (Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana)

Regional Planning and Development

  • Concept of Region
  • Types of Regions
  • Issues of Regional Imbalances
  • Strategies for Regional Development

Human Development

  • Growth v/s Development
  • Approaches to Human Development
  • Human Development Index
  • International comparisons of Human Development
    • World Development Report, 2019
  • Human Development Report    

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