UPSC SYLLABUS

Polity & Governance (Indian Polity And Governance (Prelims))

Evolution of the Constitution

  • The Company Rule (1773-1858)
    • Regulating Act, 1773
    • Amending Act, 1781
    • Pitt’s India Act, 1784
    • Amending Act of 1786
    • Charter Act, 1793
    • Charter Act, 1813
    • Charter Act, 1833
    • Charter Act, 1853
  • The Crown Rule (1858-1947)
    • Government of India Act, 1858
    • Indian Councils Act, 1861
    • Indian Councils Act, 1892
    • Indian Councils Act, 1909
    • Government of India Act, 1919
    • Simon Commission
    • Government of India Act, 1935
    • Indian Independence Act, 1947
  • Drafting and Sources of Indian Constitution)
    • Seminal Sources
    • External Sources
    • Developmental Sources
    • Constitutional Practices
    • Important Committees of the Constituent Assembly and their Chairman

Salient Features of Indian Constitution

  • Constitution and Types
    • What is a Constitution?
    • Types of Constitution
    • Functions of the Constitution
    • Historical evolution of the Constitution
    • Constituent Assembly
    • Objectives of the Constitution
    • Unitary features
    • Federal features
  • Types of Political System
    • Types of Political System
    • Types of Government
    • Parliamentary form of government
    • Features of the Presidential System
    • Features of Semi-Presidential System
  • Types of Majorities as per the Indian Constitution
    • Absolute Majority
    • Effective Majority
    • Simple Majority
    • Special Majority
  • Preamble and Values in the Constitution
    • The objectives laid down in the Preamble
    • Whether the Preamble is a partof the Constitution or not?
    • Whether Preamble can be amended or not?
      • Ideals (mentioned in the Preamble)
      • Democratic
      • Sovereign
      • Socialist
      • Secular
      • Republic
      • Justice
      • Equality
      • Liberty
      • Fraternity
      • Integrity
  • Amendment of the Constitution
    • Procedure for amendment
    • Types of Amendments
    • Amendability of FR’s
    • Ingredients of basic structure
  • Doctrine and Terms
    • Doctrine of severability
    • Validity of Re-Constitutional Laws
    • Doctrine of Eclipse
    • Doctrine of Harmonious Construction
    • Doctrine of Pith and Substance
    • Doctrine of Colorable Legislation (Article 246)
    • Doctrine of Territorial Nexus
    • Doctrine of Laches
    • Due Process of Law
    • Procedure Established by Law
  • Other Constitutional Dimensions
    • Schedules and Subjects
    • Official Languages

Union & Its Territory

  • ARTICLE 1-4
    • Article 1: Name and Territory of the Union
    • Committee/commission for StateRe-organisation
    • The State Reorganization Commission(SRC) 1953
    • Article 2: Admit or Establish new State
    • Article 3: Formation of new States andalternation of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
    • Article 4: Laws made under articles2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedule and Supplemental.
    • Delimitation Commission

Citizenship

  • Constitutional Provisions
    • Constitutional provisions of citizenship
    • Citizenship Act, 1955
    • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2016
    • Methodology of getting citizenship
    • Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India
    • Concept of dual citizenship
    • Special privileges enjoyed bycitizens in India
    • Rights and Duties of Citizens
  • Indian Diaspora
    • Pravasi Bhartiya Divas
    • Non-Resident Indians

Fundamental Rights

  • Evolution Objectives And Features
    • Meaning
    • Objectives
    • Features
    • Importance
    • Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights
  • Article 12 and Article 13
    • Definition of state
    • Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
  • Right to Equality
    • Article 14: Equality before the lawor the Equal protection of Law
    • Article 15: Prohibition of Discriminationon the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
    • Article 16: Equality of Opportunityin matters of Public Employment
    • Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability
    • Article 18: Abolition of Titles
  • Right to Freedom
    • Article 19
    • Article 20: (Protection in respectof conviction for offenses)
    • Article 21: Protection of life andpersonal liberty
    • Article 22: Protection against arrestand detention
  • Right against Exploitation
    • Article 23: Prohibition of Trafficin human beings and forced labour
    • Article 24: Prohibition of employmentof children in factories, etc
  • Right to Freedom of Religion
    • Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation or religion
    • Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs
    • Article 27: Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
    • Article 28: Freedom from attendance religious instruction or worship in educational institutions
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
    • Article 29: Protection of interest of Minorities
    • Article 30: Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
    • Article 32: Right to Constitutional Remedies:
      • Habeas Corpus
      • Mandamus
      • Certiorari
      • Prohibition
      • Quo Warranto
  • FR’s other Dimensions
    • Article 33
    • Article 34
    • Article 35
    • Article 35A         

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

  • Evolution, objectives, and features
    • Basic features
    • Types
    • Amendments
    • Implementation
  • Socialistic Principles
    • Article: 38
    • Article:39
    • Article: 39A
    • Article: 41
    • Article: 42
    • Article: 43
    • Article: 43-A
    • Article: 47
  • Gandhian Principles
    • Article: 40
    • Article: 43
    • Article: 46
    • Article: 47
    • Article: 48
  • Liberal-Intellectual Principles
    • Article: 44
    • Article: 45
    • Article: 48
    • Article: 48A
    • Article: 49
    • Article: 50
    • Article: 51
  • Directive Principle Outside Part IV
    • ARTICLE 335 IN PART XVI
    • ARTICLE 350-A IN PART XVII
    • Article 351 in Part XVII

Fundamental Duties

  • Article: 51A
    • Features
    • Relation between of Fundamental Rightsand Fundamental Duties
    • List Of Fundamental Duties
    • 86th Constitutional Amendment Act 2003 : RTE
  • Recent Developments
    • Fundamental Duties – Awareness Campaigns is the Duty of Centre
    • National Anthem - Mandatoryin Cinema Halls - Article 51(a)
    • Prevention of Insults toNational Honour Act, 1971
    • Triple Talaq Issue
    • Uniform Civil Code
    • MGNREGA: Right to Work
    • Making Aadhar mandatory

System of Governance

  • Centre-State Relations
    • Legislative relations (Articles) 245
    • Related to Territorial Powers
    • Related to Legislative Powers
    • Related to Parliament’s Powersto make Laws in State
    • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinionon Legislative Relations
    • Administrative Relations
    • Delegation of Union Functionsto the States
    • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinionon Administrative Relations
    • Financial relations
    • National Integration Council
  • Inter State Relation
    • Inter state water dispute
    • Inter state councils
    • Inter state trade and commerce
    • Zonal Councils
  • Special Provisoions for some States
    • Provisions for Maharastra and Gujarat, Nagaland, Assam and Manipur
    • Provisions for Jammu and Kashmir (A370) (now abrogated)
  • Types of Emergencies
    • National Emergency
    • Constitutional/State Emergency /President’s Rule
  • Financial Emergency

Union Executive

  • President
    • Eligibility
    • Conditions of Office
    • Term of Office
    • Election
    • Manner of Election
    • Impeachment of the President
    • Impeachment of the President
    • Vacancy in the Office of President
    • Powers of the President
      • Executive powers (Article 53)
      • Legislative Powers
      • Financial Powers
      • Ordinance Issuing Power (Article 123)
      • Judicial/Pardoning Power
      • Military
      • Diplomatic
      • Emergency Powers
  • Vice President
    • Qualification
    • Conditions of Office
    • Term of Office
    • Election
    • Removal
    • Vacancy
    • Functions of the Vice-President
  • The Prime Minister
    • Appointment
    • Eligibility
    • Powers and Functions of Prime Minister
    • Relationship between the President
      and the Prime Minister
    • Deputy Prime Minister
    • Prime Minister’s Office
  • Union Council of Minister
    • Article 74: Council of Ministers to aidand advice President
    • Article 75: Other Provisions as to Ministers
    • Article 77: Conduct of Businessof the Government of India
    • Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister
    • Nature of advice by Ministers
    • Strength of the Council
    • Appointment of a Non-legislator as a Minister
    • Collective responsibility of the Ministers
    • Individual Responsibility of Ministers

Union Legislature

  • Organisation of Parliament
    • Organisation of Parliament
    • Qualifications and Disqualifications forbeing a Member of Parliament (Article 84)
    • Functions of the Parliament
    • Functioning of the Parliament
    • Sessions of Parliament
    • Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings
    • Parliamentary Privileges and Immunities
    • Collective Privileges of the House
    • Individual Privileges
    • Houses of the Parliament
  • Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
    • Lok Sabha Composition
    • Rajya Sabha Composition
    • Presiding Officers of the Parliament
    • Speaker
    • Powers & Functions of the speaker
    • Deputy Speaker
    • Panel of Chairpersons of Lok Sabha
    • Speaker Pro Tem
    • Chairman of Rajya Sabha
    • Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
    • Panel of Vice-Chairpersons of Rajya Sabha
    • Chairman and Deputy chairman of the Council of States
  • Legislative Procedure and Committees of Parliament
    • Legislative Procedure in Parliament
    • Ordinary Bill
    • Money Bill
    • Financial Bill
    • Constitution Amendment Bill
    • Lapsing of Bills
    • Annual Financial Statement: Budget (Article 112)
    • Demand of Grants
    • Appropriation Bill
    • Cut motions
    • Stages in Enactment of Budget
    • Other Grants
    • Related Information of Budget
    • Parliamentary committees

State Executive

  • Governor
    • Article 152: Definition
    • Article 153: Governors of States
    • Article 154: Executive power of State
      • Powers of Governor
      • Executive power
      • Legislative power
      • Financial Power
      • Judicial Power
    • Discretionary power
    • Article 155: Appointment of Governor
    • Article 156: Term of office of Governor
    • Article 157: Qualifications for Appointment as Governor
    • Article 158: Conditions of Governor’s office
    • Article 159: Oath or affirmation by the Governor
    • Article 160: Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies
    • Article 161
    • Article 162: Extent of executive power of State
    • Recommendations on the office of Governor
    • ARC (Administrative Reforms Commission)
    • Sarkaria Commission
    • National Commission to Review the working of the Constitution
  • The Chief Minister and the CoM
    • Powers and Functions of Chief Minister
      • In Relation to Council of Ministers
      • In relation to the Governor
      • In Relation to State Legislature
      • Other Powers and Functions
    • Composition of the Council of Ministers
    • Responsibility of Ministers
    • Advocate-General for the State

State Legislature

  • Legislative Assembly
    • Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)
    • Powers and Functions
    • Speaker & Deputy Speaker
    • Parliament’s Control over State Legislature
  • Legislative Council (Article 169)
    • Qualifications
    • Powers and Functions

Local Government

  • Panchayati Raj
    • Evolution of the Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI)
    • 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
    • Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions
  • Urban Local Government
    • 74th Constitutional Amendment Act
    • Types of Urban Governments In India

Union Territories and special Areas

  • Union Territories
    • Creation of Union Territories
    • Administration of UT’s
    • Special provisions for Delhi
    • Special Category Status
  • Schedule and Tribal Areas
    • Administration of Schedule Areas
    • Administration of Tribal areas

The Judiciary

  • The Supreme Court
    • Chief Justice of India
    • Acting Chief Justice of India
    • Appointment of Supreme Court Judges
    • Qualifications for Supreme Court Judges
    • Removal of a Supreme Court Judges
    • Process of Impeachment
    • Ad hoc and Retired Judges
    • Salaries and allowances of SupremeCourt Judges
    • Chief Justices of India (Since 1951)
    • Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
    • Judicial Independence
    • Judiciary Executive Relations
  • The High Court Subordinate Courts & Lok Adalats
    • The High Courts
    • Jurisdiction of the High Courts
    • Subordinate Courts
    • Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008
    • Alternative dispute Resolution
    • Lok Adalat
    • All India Judicial Service
    • E-governance in Judiciary
    • Judicial Impact Assessment
    • Judges Standards and AccountabilityBill, 2010
    • National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

Constitutional & Non Constitutional Bodies

  • Constitutional Bodies
    • Finance Commission
      • Constitution
      • Functions
    • Comptrollerand Auditor General of India
      • Comptroller and Auditor-General
    • Attorney-General of India
      • Appointment
      • Functions and Responsibilities
    • Other Constitutional Bodies
      • All India Services
      • Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
    • State Public Service Commission (SPSC)
    • Joint State public Service Commission (JSPSC)
    • National Commission For SCs
    • National Commission For STs
    • Special Officer for Linguistic Minority
    • The Advocate General (Article 165)
  • Non Constitutional
    • Special officer for linguistic Minorities
    • Central Information Commission
    • State Information Commission
    • Lokpal and Lok Ayukta
    • National Human Rights Commission
    • State Human Right Commission
    • CVC (Central Vigillance Commission)

Political Dynamics

  • Political Parties and Election
    • Electoral System in India
    • Electoral Reforms Since 1988
    • Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950
      • Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951
      • Elections in India
      • Electoral reforms since 1988
      • Criminalization of politics
      • Negative or neutral voting
      • State funding of Election
      • Irregularities in polling
    • Types of Political Parties
    • Party System in India
    • Political Parties in India
      • Problems in the working of parties
      • Casteism and Politic
      • Strengthening of Anti-defection measures
    • Pressure Groups
      • Meaning and Techniques
      • Pressure Groups in India
      • Types of pressure groups
        • Role of pressure groupin developing countries
        • Functions of pressure groups in India
        • Pressure groups methods
        • Pressure groups and Democracy
        • Criticism of pressure groups       

Governance

  • Governing Institutions in India
    • Structure of Ministries/departments
    • Political head
    • Secretariat organization secretary
    • Functions of the secretariat
    • Functions of attached and subordinate office
    • Other organizations
    • Public sector undertakings
    • The Executive organization
    • Advantages of the separation ofsecretariat and executive organization.
    • Strengths and weaknesses of theexisting structure
    • Recommendations for improvingthe Organizational structure
  • Audit and other Transparency initiatives
    • CVC
    • CAG
    • Lokpal
    • Lok Ayukta
  • Role of SHG, NGOs, Civil Society
    • SHGs
      • Characteristics
      • Role of SHGs in development
    • NGOs
      • Functions
      • Role of NGOs in development
    • Micro Finance Institutions
      • Salient features
      • Role of MFIs in development
  • Social Sector Bills
      • The Juvenile Justice (Care andProtection of Children) Act
      • Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016
      • Child Labour (Prohibitionand Amendment) Bill, 2016
      • Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016
      • Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act
      • Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
      • Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO)
      • Anti Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty
      • HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control)Bill- 2014 - Amendments
      • Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC WidensAmbit
      • Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesBill, 2014 with more Benefit
      • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights)Bill 2016
      • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act
  • Welfare Schemes
      • Health                                                       
        • National Health Mission
        • National Ayush Mission
        • Jan Aushadhi Scheme
        • Mission Indradhanush
        • NFHS-4 survey
      • Education
        • Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
        • Mid Day Meal Scheme
        • GIAN (Global Initiative ofAcademic Networks)
        • SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active –Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)
      • Start-up and Skill Development
        • Start Up India Scheme
        • Stand up India Scheme
        • National Student Start-up Policy
        • National Skill Development Mission
        • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
        • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
        • Skill Development Initiative Scheme
        • Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU)
        • Atal Innovation Mission
      • Vulnerable Sector
        • Social Security
        • Atal Pension Yojana
        • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
        • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
        • Nai Roshni Scheme
        • USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)
        • Nai Manzil Scheme
        • Women and Child Development
        • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
        • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
        • Digital Gudda Guddi Board
        • Ujjawala Scheme
        • Janani Suraksha Yojana
        • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram
        • SC/ST
        • Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
        • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana
        • Disability
        • Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan)
        • Rural and Urban Development
        • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
        • Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan
        • Shyama Prasad Mukharjee Rurban Mission
        • Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
        • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
        • Swachch Bharat Abhiyan
        • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin
        • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban
        • Housing for all by 2022
        • Smart Cities Mission
        • Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
        • Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
      • Inclusive growth
        • Measurement criteria
        • Government initiatives for inclusive growth
        • Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/Sanitations
        • Sustainable Development
      • Rural Development
        • Rural development and poverty alleviation
        • Review of the existing Programmes
        • Development Administration
        • Panchayati Raj
        • Agriculture and Rural Development
      • Miscellaneous schemes
        • Digilocker
        • Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network)
        • INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research)
        • SAKAAR
        • Digital India
        • Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project)
        • Ganga Gram Yojana
        • Khelo India
        • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation)
        • Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF)              

International Relations

  • India’s Foreign Policy
    • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
    • Post 1990 Scenario
    • Global Issues
  • South Asia
    • India – Nepal Relations
    • India and Bhutan
    • India-Afghanislam Relations
    • India-Bangladesh Relations
    • India-Maldives Relations
    • India-Sri Lanka Relations
    • India-Myanmar Relations
    • India-Pakistan Relations
    • SAARC
    • NAM (Non-Alignment Movement): Relevance
  • Central Asia
    • Mongolia
    • Kazakhastan
    • Tukmenistan
    • Uzbekistan
  • West Asia
    • India – UAE Relations      
    • India IRAN Relations
    • Israel and Palestine Relations
    • India – Israel Relations
    • India – Saudi Arabia
  • Asia – Pacific
    • Asia-Pacific Region
    • India-South East Asia Relations
    • India-Asean Cooperation
    • Indo-Japan Relations
    • Indo-Australia Relations
    • India – South Korea Relations
    • India-Vietnam
  • Africa
    • India-South Africa Relations
    • India-Nigeria Relations
    • India-Kenya Relations
    • India-Sudan Relations
  • Europe
    • India-Russia Relations
    • India-France Relations
    • India-Germany Relations
    • India-United Kingdom Relations
    • India-EU Kingdom Relations
  • US-China
    • India-USA Relations
    • India-China Relations
  • Indian Ocean Region
    • Seychelles
    • Mauritius
    • Maldives
  • Indian Diaspora
    • Indian Diaspora in West
    • Indian Diaspora in Gulf
    • Indian Diaspora in Eastand Middle East

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