UPSC SYLLABUS

Polity & Governance (Indian Polity And Governance (Prelims))

Subjects

  • Maths
  • History
  • Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Polity & Governance
  • International Relations
  • Economy
  • Science & Technology
  • Environment
  • Internal Security
  • Ethics
  • Evolution of the Constitution

    • The Company Rule (1773-1858)
      • Regulating Act, 1773
      • Amending Act, 1781
      • Pitt’s India Act, 1784
      • Amending Act of 1786
      • Charter Act, 1793
      • Charter Act, 1813
      • Charter Act, 1833
      • Charter Act, 1853
    • The Crown Rule (1858-1947)
      • Government of India Act, 1858
      • Indian Councils Act, 1861
      • Indian Councils Act, 1892
      • Indian Councils Act, 1909
      • Government of India Act, 1919
      • Simon Commission
      • Government of India Act, 1935
      • Indian Independence Act, 1947
    • Drafting and Sources of Indian Constitution)
      • Seminal Sources
      • External Sources
      • Developmental Sources
      • Constitutional Practices
      • Important Committees of the Constituent Assembly and their Chairman

    Salient Features of Indian Constitution

    • Constitution and Types
      • What is a Constitution?
      • Types of Constitution
      • Functions of the Constitution
      • Historical evolution of the Constitution
      • Constituent Assembly
      • Objectives of the Constitution
      • Unitary features
      • Federal features
    • Types of Political System
      • Types of Political System
      • Types of Government
      • Parliamentary form of government
      • Features of the Presidential System
      • Features of Semi-Presidential System
    • Types of Majorities as per the Indian Constitution
      • Absolute Majority
      • Effective Majority
      • Simple Majority
      • Special Majority
    • Preamble and Values in the Constitution
      • The objectives laid down in the Preamble
      • Whether the Preamble is a partof the Constitution or not?
      • Whether Preamble can be amended or not?
        • Ideals (mentioned in the Preamble)
        • Democratic
        • Sovereign
        • Socialist
        • Secular
        • Republic
        • Justice
        • Equality
        • Liberty
        • Fraternity
        • Integrity
    • Amendment of the Constitution
      • Procedure for amendment
      • Types of Amendments
      • Amendability of FR’s
      • Ingredients of basic structure
    • Doctrine and Terms
      • Doctrine of severability
      • Validity of Re-Constitutional Laws
      • Doctrine of Eclipse
      • Doctrine of Harmonious Construction
      • Doctrine of Pith and Substance
      • Doctrine of Colorable Legislation (Article 246)
      • Doctrine of Territorial Nexus
      • Doctrine of Laches
      • Due Process of Law
      • Procedure Established by Law
    • Other Constitutional Dimensions
      • Schedules and Subjects
      • Official Languages

    Union & Its Territory

    • ARTICLE 1-4
      • Article 1: Name and Territory of the Union
      • Committee/commission for StateRe-organisation
      • The State Reorganization Commission(SRC) 1953
      • Article 2: Admit or Establish new State
      • Article 3: Formation of new States andalternation of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
      • Article 4: Laws made under articles2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedule and Supplemental.
      • Delimitation Commission

    Citizenship

    • Constitutional Provisions
      • Constitutional provisions of citizenship
      • Citizenship Act, 1955
      • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2016
      • Methodology of getting citizenship
      • Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India
      • Concept of dual citizenship
      • Special privileges enjoyed bycitizens in India
      • Rights and Duties of Citizens
    • Indian Diaspora
      • Pravasi Bhartiya Divas
      • Non-Resident Indians

    Fundamental Rights

    • Evolution Objectives And Features
      • Meaning
      • Objectives
      • Features
      • Importance
      • Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights
    • Article 12 and Article 13
      • Definition of state
      • Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
    • Right to Equality
      • Article 14: Equality before the lawor the Equal protection of Law
      • Article 15: Prohibition of Discriminationon the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
      • Article 16: Equality of Opportunityin matters of Public Employment
      • Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability
      • Article 18: Abolition of Titles
    • Right to Freedom
      • Article 19
      • Article 20: (Protection in respectof conviction for offenses)
      • Article 21: Protection of life andpersonal liberty
      • Article 22: Protection against arrestand detention
    • Right against Exploitation
      • Article 23: Prohibition of Trafficin human beings and forced labour
      • Article 24: Prohibition of employmentof children in factories, etc
    • Right to Freedom of Religion
      • Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation or religion
      • Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs
      • Article 27: Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
      • Article 28: Freedom from attendance religious instruction or worship in educational institutions
    • Cultural and Educational Rights
      • Article 29: Protection of interest of Minorities
      • Article 30: Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
    • Right to Constitutional Remedies
      • Article 32: Right to Constitutional Remedies:
        • Habeas Corpus
        • Mandamus
        • Certiorari
        • Prohibition
        • Quo Warranto
    • FR’s other Dimensions
      • Article 33
      • Article 34
      • Article 35
      • Article 35A         

    Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

    • Evolution, objectives, and features
      • Basic features
      • Types
      • Amendments
      • Implementation
    • Socialistic Principles
      • Article: 38
      • Article:39
      • Article: 39A
      • Article: 41
      • Article: 42
      • Article: 43
      • Article: 43-A
      • Article: 47
    • Gandhian Principles
      • Article: 40
      • Article: 43
      • Article: 46
      • Article: 47
      • Article: 48
    • Liberal-Intellectual Principles
      • Article: 44
      • Article: 45
      • Article: 48
      • Article: 48A
      • Article: 49
      • Article: 50
      • Article: 51
    • Directive Principle Outside Part IV
      • ARTICLE 335 IN PART XVI
      • ARTICLE 350-A IN PART XVII
      • Article 351 in Part XVII

    Fundamental Duties

    • Article: 51A
      • Features
      • Relation between of Fundamental Rightsand Fundamental Duties
      • List Of Fundamental Duties
      • 86th Constitutional Amendment Act 2003 : RTE
    • Recent Developments
      • Fundamental Duties – Awareness Campaigns is the Duty of Centre
      • National Anthem - Mandatoryin Cinema Halls - Article 51(a)
      • Prevention of Insults toNational Honour Act, 1971
      • Triple Talaq Issue
      • Uniform Civil Code
      • MGNREGA: Right to Work
      • Making Aadhar mandatory

    System of Governance

    • Centre-State Relations
      • Legislative relations (Articles) 245
      • Related to Territorial Powers
      • Related to Legislative Powers
      • Related to Parliament’s Powersto make Laws in State
      • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinionon Legislative Relations
      • Administrative Relations
      • Delegation of Union Functionsto the States
      • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinionon Administrative Relations
      • Financial relations
      • National Integration Council
    • Inter State Relation
      • Inter state water dispute
      • Inter state councils
      • Inter state trade and commerce
      • Zonal Councils
    • Special Provisoions for some States
      • Provisions for Maharastra and Gujarat, Nagaland, Assam and Manipur
      • Provisions for Jammu and Kashmir (A370) (now abrogated)
    • Types of Emergencies
      • National Emergency
      • Constitutional/State Emergency /President’s Rule
    • Financial Emergency

    Union Executive

    • President
      • Eligibility
      • Conditions of Office
      • Term of Office
      • Election
      • Manner of Election
      • Impeachment of the President
      • Impeachment of the President
      • Vacancy in the Office of President
      • Powers of the President
        • Executive powers (Article 53)
        • Legislative Powers
        • Financial Powers
        • Ordinance Issuing Power (Article 123)
        • Judicial/Pardoning Power
        • Military
        • Diplomatic
        • Emergency Powers
    • Vice President
      • Qualification
      • Conditions of Office
      • Term of Office
      • Election
      • Removal
      • Vacancy
      • Functions of the Vice-President
    • The Prime Minister
      • Appointment
      • Eligibility
      • Powers and Functions of Prime Minister
      • Relationship between the President
        and the Prime Minister
      • Deputy Prime Minister
      • Prime Minister’s Office
    • Union Council of Minister
      • Article 74: Council of Ministers to aidand advice President
      • Article 75: Other Provisions as to Ministers
      • Article 77: Conduct of Businessof the Government of India
      • Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister
      • Nature of advice by Ministers
      • Strength of the Council
      • Appointment of a Non-legislator as a Minister
      • Collective responsibility of the Ministers
      • Individual Responsibility of Ministers

    Union Legislature

    • Organisation of Parliament
      • Organisation of Parliament
      • Qualifications and Disqualifications forbeing a Member of Parliament (Article 84)
      • Functions of the Parliament
      • Functioning of the Parliament
      • Sessions of Parliament
      • Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings
      • Parliamentary Privileges and Immunities
      • Collective Privileges of the House
      • Individual Privileges
      • Houses of the Parliament
    • Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
      • Lok Sabha Composition
      • Rajya Sabha Composition
      • Presiding Officers of the Parliament
      • Speaker
      • Powers & Functions of the speaker
      • Deputy Speaker
      • Panel of Chairpersons of Lok Sabha
      • Speaker Pro Tem
      • Chairman of Rajya Sabha
      • Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
      • Panel of Vice-Chairpersons of Rajya Sabha
      • Chairman and Deputy chairman of the Council of States
    • Legislative Procedure and Committees of Parliament
      • Legislative Procedure in Parliament
      • Ordinary Bill
      • Money Bill
      • Financial Bill
      • Constitution Amendment Bill
      • Lapsing of Bills
      • Annual Financial Statement: Budget (Article 112)
      • Demand of Grants
      • Appropriation Bill
      • Cut motions
      • Stages in Enactment of Budget
      • Other Grants
      • Related Information of Budget
      • Parliamentary committees

    State Executive

    • Governor
      • Article 152: Definition
      • Article 153: Governors of States
      • Article 154: Executive power of State
        • Powers of Governor
        • Executive power
        • Legislative power
        • Financial Power
        • Judicial Power
      • Discretionary power
      • Article 155: Appointment of Governor
      • Article 156: Term of office of Governor
      • Article 157: Qualifications for Appointment as Governor
      • Article 158: Conditions of Governor’s office
      • Article 159: Oath or affirmation by the Governor
      • Article 160: Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies
      • Article 161
      • Article 162: Extent of executive power of State
      • Recommendations on the office of Governor
      • ARC (Administrative Reforms Commission)
      • Sarkaria Commission
      • National Commission to Review the working of the Constitution
    • The Chief Minister and the CoM
      • Powers and Functions of Chief Minister
        • In Relation to Council of Ministers
        • In relation to the Governor
        • In Relation to State Legislature
        • Other Powers and Functions
      • Composition of the Council of Ministers
      • Responsibility of Ministers
      • Advocate-General for the State

    State Legislature

    • Legislative Assembly
      • Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)
      • Powers and Functions
      • Speaker & Deputy Speaker
      • Parliament’s Control over State Legislature
    • Legislative Council (Article 169)
      • Qualifications
      • Powers and Functions

    Local Government

    • Panchayati Raj
      • Evolution of the Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI)
      • 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
      • Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions
    • Urban Local Government
      • 74th Constitutional Amendment Act
      • Types of Urban Governments In India

    Union Territories and special Areas

    • Union Territories
      • Creation of Union Territories
      • Administration of UT’s
      • Special provisions for Delhi
      • Special Category Status
    • Schedule and Tribal Areas
      • Administration of Schedule Areas
      • Administration of Tribal areas

    The Judiciary

    • The Supreme Court
      • Chief Justice of India
      • Acting Chief Justice of India
      • Appointment of Supreme Court Judges
      • Qualifications for Supreme Court Judges
      • Removal of a Supreme Court Judges
      • Process of Impeachment
      • Ad hoc and Retired Judges
      • Salaries and allowances of SupremeCourt Judges
      • Chief Justices of India (Since 1951)
      • Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
      • Judicial Independence
      • Judiciary Executive Relations
    • The High Court Subordinate Courts & Lok Adalats
      • The High Courts
      • Jurisdiction of the High Courts
      • Subordinate Courts
      • Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008
      • Alternative dispute Resolution
      • Lok Adalat
      • All India Judicial Service
      • E-governance in Judiciary
      • Judicial Impact Assessment
      • Judges Standards and AccountabilityBill, 2010
      • National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

    Constitutional & Non Constitutional Bodies

    • Constitutional Bodies
      • Finance Commission
        • Constitution
        • Functions
      • Comptrollerand Auditor General of India
        • Comptroller and Auditor-General
      • Attorney-General of India
        • Appointment
        • Functions and Responsibilities
      • Other Constitutional Bodies
        • All India Services
        • Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
      • State Public Service Commission (SPSC)
      • Joint State public Service Commission (JSPSC)
      • National Commission For SCs
      • National Commission For STs
      • Special Officer for Linguistic Minority
      • The Advocate General (Article 165)
    • Non Constitutional
      • Special officer for linguistic Minorities
      • Central Information Commission
      • State Information Commission
      • Lokpal and Lok Ayukta
      • National Human Rights Commission
      • State Human Right Commission
      • CVC (Central Vigillance Commission)

    Political Dynamics

    • Political Parties and Election
      • Electoral System in India
      • Electoral Reforms Since 1988
      • Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950
        • Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951
        • Elections in India
        • Electoral reforms since 1988
        • Criminalization of politics
        • Negative or neutral voting
        • State funding of Election
        • Irregularities in polling
      • Types of Political Parties
      • Party System in India
      • Political Parties in India
        • Problems in the working of parties
        • Casteism and Politic
        • Strengthening of Anti-defection measures
      • Pressure Groups
        • Meaning and Techniques
        • Pressure Groups in India
        • Types of pressure groups
          • Role of pressure groupin developing countries
          • Functions of pressure groups in India
          • Pressure groups methods
          • Pressure groups and Democracy
          • Criticism of pressure groups       

    Governance

    • Governing Institutions in India
      • Structure of Ministries/departments
      • Political head
      • Secretariat organization secretary
      • Functions of the secretariat
      • Functions of attached and subordinate office
      • Other organizations
      • Public sector undertakings
      • The Executive organization
      • Advantages of the separation ofsecretariat and executive organization.
      • Strengths and weaknesses of theexisting structure
      • Recommendations for improvingthe Organizational structure
    • Audit and other Transparency initiatives
      • CVC
      • CAG
      • Lokpal
      • Lok Ayukta
    • Role of SHG, NGOs, Civil Society
      • SHGs
        • Characteristics
        • Role of SHGs in development
      • NGOs
        • Functions
        • Role of NGOs in development
      • Micro Finance Institutions
        • Salient features
        • Role of MFIs in development
    • Social Sector Bills
        • The Juvenile Justice (Care andProtection of Children) Act
        • Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016
        • Child Labour (Prohibitionand Amendment) Bill, 2016
        • Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016
        • Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act
        • Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
        • Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO)
        • Anti Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty
        • HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control)Bill- 2014 - Amendments
        • Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC WidensAmbit
        • Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesBill, 2014 with more Benefit
        • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights)Bill 2016
        • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act
    • Welfare Schemes
        • Health                                                       
          • National Health Mission
          • National Ayush Mission
          • Jan Aushadhi Scheme
          • Mission Indradhanush
          • NFHS-4 survey
        • Education
          • Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
          • Mid Day Meal Scheme
          • GIAN (Global Initiative ofAcademic Networks)
          • SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active –Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)
        • Start-up and Skill Development
          • Start Up India Scheme
          • Stand up India Scheme
          • National Student Start-up Policy
          • National Skill Development Mission
          • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
          • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
          • Skill Development Initiative Scheme
          • Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU)
          • Atal Innovation Mission
        • Vulnerable Sector
          • Social Security
          • Atal Pension Yojana
          • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
          • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
          • Nai Roshni Scheme
          • USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)
          • Nai Manzil Scheme
          • Women and Child Development
          • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
          • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
          • Digital Gudda Guddi Board
          • Ujjawala Scheme
          • Janani Suraksha Yojana
          • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram
          • SC/ST
          • Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
          • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana
          • Disability
          • Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan)
          • Rural and Urban Development
          • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
          • Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan
          • Shyama Prasad Mukharjee Rurban Mission
          • Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
          • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
          • Swachch Bharat Abhiyan
          • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin
          • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban
          • Housing for all by 2022
          • Smart Cities Mission
          • Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
          • Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
        • Inclusive growth
          • Measurement criteria
          • Government initiatives for inclusive growth
          • Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/Sanitations
          • Sustainable Development
        • Rural Development
          • Rural development and poverty alleviation
          • Review of the existing Programmes
          • Development Administration
          • Panchayati Raj
          • Agriculture and Rural Development
        • Miscellaneous schemes
          • Digilocker
          • Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network)
          • INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research)
          • SAKAAR
          • Digital India
          • Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project)
          • Ganga Gram Yojana
          • Khelo India
          • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation)
          • Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF)              

    International Relations

    • India’s Foreign Policy
      • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
      • Post 1990 Scenario
      • Global Issues
    • South Asia
      • India – Nepal Relations
      • India and Bhutan
      • India-Afghanislam Relations
      • India-Bangladesh Relations
      • India-Maldives Relations
      • India-Sri Lanka Relations
      • India-Myanmar Relations
      • India-Pakistan Relations
      • SAARC
      • NAM (Non-Alignment Movement): Relevance
    • Central Asia
      • Mongolia
      • Kazakhastan
      • Tukmenistan
      • Uzbekistan
    • West Asia
      • India – UAE Relations      
      • India IRAN Relations
      • Israel and Palestine Relations
      • India – Israel Relations
      • India – Saudi Arabia
    • Asia – Pacific
      • Asia-Pacific Region
      • India-South East Asia Relations
      • India-Asean Cooperation
      • Indo-Japan Relations
      • Indo-Australia Relations
      • India – South Korea Relations
      • India-Vietnam
    • Africa
      • India-South Africa Relations
      • India-Nigeria Relations
      • India-Kenya Relations
      • India-Sudan Relations
    • Europe
      • India-Russia Relations
      • India-France Relations
      • India-Germany Relations
      • India-United Kingdom Relations
      • India-EU Kingdom Relations
    • US-China
      • India-USA Relations
      • India-China Relations
    • Indian Ocean Region
      • Seychelles
      • Mauritius
      • Maldives
    • Indian Diaspora
      • Indian Diaspora in West
      • Indian Diaspora in Gulf
      • Indian Diaspora in Eastand Middle East
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